Cardio Physio and Pathology Sem1 Mini3

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Author:
pandachowmein
ID:
118678
Filename:
Cardio Physio and Pathology Sem1 Mini3
Updated:
2011-11-23 11:17:05
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Cardio physio patho disease development
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Semester 1 mini 3 cardio
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  1. S1 heart sound
    • Mitral and tricuspid valve closure
    • splitting in 40% of normal but hard to hear or right bundle block
    • position near tricuspid valve left lateral to intercostal space 5
  2. S2 heart sound
    • aortic and pulmonic valve closure
    • physiologial splitting during inspiration due to increased venous return
    • best heard left and right side of 2nd intercostal space
  3. S3
    • Ventricular filling sound
    • Physiological in babies and thin (athelets)
    • Pathological in increased ventricular filling due to mitral valve reguirgitation (and dialated cardio myopathy)
    • Does not dissapear with atrial fibrilation (unlike S4)
  4. S4 heart sound
    • Always pathological
    • associated with left ventricular hypertrophy(decreased ventricular distentability)
    • Dissapears with atrial fibrilation (which is why mitral valve reguirg will not cause S3 even when ventricular distentability is present)??
    • Aortic stenosis, hypertension, sever mitral and aortic reguirg
  5. Aortic stenosis
    • Age and calification
    • or bicuspid genetic defect
    • Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (S4)
    • Weakend pulse
    • Systolic murmur and S4 characteristic
  6. Pulmonic stenosis
    • almost always congenital
    • high diasltic pressure and system edema?
  7. Mitral Stenosis
    • Old age and rhmatic heard disease
    • causes Right atrial hypertrophy --> atrial fibrilation
    • Diastolic murmur
  8. Mitral valve prolase
    • Typically due to connective tissue disorder
    • Myxomatous degeneration
    • secondary to chordae tendinae rupture and papillar muscle rupture from MI
    • S1 - click - shhh - S2
    • mid systolic click with late systolic murmur
  9. Mitral valve insufficency /reguirg
    • Calcification and papillary muscle rupture
    • Systolic murmur and often S3 (rapid ventricular filling)
    • Atrial hypertrophy??
    • Atrial fibrilation ??
  10. Acyantoic heart defects
    • Ventricular septal defect (most commmon)
    • atrial septal defect
    • patent ductus ateriosus
    • Atrioventricular setpal defect
  11. Cyonotic Heart defect
    • Tetrology of Fallot (most common cyonotic)
    • transposition of the great arteries
    • persistant truncus arteriosus
  12. Ventricular septal defect
    • most common heart malformation
    • Holostolic murmur (whoosh is all you hear)
    • chronic defect may result in eisenmengers syndrom
    • turning left --> right to right --> left due to high pulmonic pressure
  13. Eisenmenger's syndrom
    • long term left to right shunting increases right ventricular size
    • increase pulmonary hypertension resulting in a reverse of flow
    • from right to left shunting when pulmonary pressure exceeds systematic pressure
    • ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriousis

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