# Phys Exam III The equation

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1. What is critical for the function of proteins in the human body?
Maintenance of body temperature within a narrow range
2. What are the factors that effect the "normal" body temperature?
• Gender
• Time of day
• Reproductive cycle
• WHether you are an early bird or a night owl
3. We regulate body temperature within a narrow bound. Body temperature above _______ and below _______ can cause serious damage or be fatal.
• 41oC
• 24oC
4. The change in our body temperature depends on 5 processes
• Metabolism
• Evaporation
• Convection
• Conduction
5. Is metabolsim an efficient process?
No
6. What is the efficiency of metabolism?
20%
7. What are the factors that can change metabolism?
• Size
• Gender
• Age
• feeding state
• Shivering thermogenesis
• Non-shivering thermogenesis
8. What composes the metabolic heat production?
• IS the portion of total energy you burn that is lost as heat
• The total energy you burn is your metabolic rate
• The percent of that total energy that goes towards useful work is your efficiency (around 20%)
9. What does an uncoupling protein do?
Converts stored energy in a proton gradient into heat
10. What UCP is found BAT and is important for thermogenesis?
UCP1
11. Where is UCP2 found and what does it do?
• Found in BAT, WAT, skeletal muscle and beta cells
• PLays a role in ROS removal
12. What does an increased expression of UCP2 in beta cells do?
• INcreased risk of diabetes type II
• The increase expression leads to reduced insulin production in response to glucose
13. Metabolic heat expression = ( )*( )*( )
• (B)(Stotal)(0.8)
• (Basal metabolic rate)(Surface area total on body)(1-efficiency)
14. What does evaporate heat loss depend at?
Depends on the difference in water vapor pressure between the skin and the surrounding air
15. What happens if the water vapor pressure is higher at the skin?
Then water will evaporate to the surrounding air
16. What happens when water vapor pressure is lower at the skin?
Then the water will codense on the skin
17. What surface area does evaporation depend on?
The wetted surface area
18. How do you find the evaporation constant?
Look at the graph and show that you followed the numbers
19. What is evaporation equation?
(hevaporative)(Swetted)(WVPskin-WVPair)
20. What is convection heat exchange?
Heat transfer by the movement of fluid molecules
21. What does convection heat exchang depend on?
• The temperature difference between the air close to the skin and the surrounding air
• The surface area of skin exposed to air
• The convective heat transfer coefficient
22. What is the convection equation?
(hconvective)(Swetted)(Tskin-Tair)
23. How do you find convection heat exchange constant?
Look at the graph but be careful to look at the right axis
24. What is heat exchange by conduction?
HEat exchange between surfaces in contact with a surface
25. WHat does heat exchange by conduction depend on?
• THe temperature difference between the skin and the surface
• The surface area of skin touching the surface
• The conductive heat transfer coefficient
26. WHat is the heat exchange by conduction equation?
(hk)(Sk)(Tskin-Tsurface)
27. What is heat exchange terrestrial radiation?
• The amount of long wavelength terrestrial radiation we gain or lose depends on the difference between the temperature of our skin and the temperature of our surroundings
• the surface area exposed to our surroundings and the radiative coefficent
28. What is the heat exchange by terrestrial radiation?