When too much time is spent documenting project requirements.
An initial plan that stipulates the tasks to be accomplished, the labor and other resources assigned to those tasks, and the schedule for completion.
The final work-breakdown structure that shows the planned tasks, dependencies, durations, and resource assignments.
Tradiitonally the process of allowing future system users to try out the new system on their own. Used to locate program failures just prior to final prgram shipment: 2- In the Web 2.0 world, a tactic used by vendors of license-free software to enable the vendor to perpetually change the program, principally its user interface, at its own discretion and on its own time-frame. Such programs are labeled "beta" for many years with no announced schedule for making them "non-beta."
The famous adage that states: "adding more people to a late project makes the project later." Brooks' Law is true not only because a larger staff requires increased coordination, but also because new people need to be trained. The only people who can train the new employees are the existing team members, who are thus taken off productive tasks. The costs of training new people can overwhelm the benefit of their contribution.
A set of management policies, practices, and tools that developers use to maintain control over the project's resources.
Wheter an information system can be developed within budget.
The sequence of activities that determine the earliest date by which the project can be completed.
Critical path analysis
A project management plannin process by which tasks and resources are re-assiged to tasks so as to reduce the total length of the project's critical path.
The result of each task in a project plan
Diseconomy of scale
A principle that states as development teams become larger, the average contibution per worker decreases.
A feature of an application program.
A chart that shows tasks, dates, dependencies, and possibly resources.
Lines of code
The number of lines of text in a computer program.
In the context of information systems, (1) to fix the system to do what it was supposed to do in the first place or (2) to adapt the system to a change in requirements.
Whether an information system fits within an organization's customer, culture, or legal requirements.
A type of system conversion in which the new system runs in parallel with the old one for a while. Parallel installation is expensive becuase the organization incures the costs of running both systems.
A group of fixes for high-priority failures that can be applied to existing copies of a particular product. Software vendors supply patches to fix security and other critical problems.
A type of system conversion in which the new system is installed in pieces across the organizations. Once a given piece works then the organization installs and tests another piece of the system, unitl the entire system has been installed.
A type of system conversion in which the organization implements the entire system on a limited portion of the business. The advantage of pilot implementation is that if the system fails, the failure is contained within a limited boundary. This reduces exposure of the business and also protects the new system from developing a negative reputation throughout the organization.
A type of system conversion in which the organization shuts off the old system and starts the new wystem. If the new system fails, the organization is in trouble: Nothing can be done until either the new system is fixed or the old system is reinstalled. Because of the risk, organizations should avoid this onversion style if posible. sometimes called direct installation
Product quality assurance (PQA)
The testing of a system. PQA personnel usually construct a test plan with the advice and assistance of users. PQA test engineers perform testing, and they also supervise user-test activity. Many PQA rofessionals are programmers who write automated test programs.
The process by which users agree to one set of requirements, then add a bit more, then ad a bit more, and so forth.
Wheter an information system will be able to be developed on the timetable needed.
A large group of fixes that solve low-priority software problems. Users apply service packs in much the same way that they apply patches, except that service packs typically involve fixes to hundreds or thousands of problems.
The process of converting business activity from the old system to the new.
Systems analysis and design
The process of creating and maintaining information systems. It is sometimes called systems development.
IS professionals who understand both business and technology. They are active throughout the systems develpment process and play a key role in moving the project from conception to conversion and, ultimately, maintenance. Systems analysts integrate the work of the programmers, testers, and users.
The process of creating and maintaining information systems. It is sometimes called systems analysis and design.
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
The classical process used to develop information systems. These basic tasks of systems development are combined into the following phases: system definition, requirements analysis, component esign, implementation, and system maintenance (fix or enhance)
Whether existing information technology will be able to meet the needs of a new information system.
Groups of sequences of actions that users will take when using the new system.
In project management, a choice among scarce resources such as scope, time, cost, quality, risk, people, and other resources. Managers may need to trade off a delay in the project due date to reduce expense and keep critical employees.
The fiction that one phase of the SDLC can be completed in its entirety and the project can progress, without any backtracking, to the next phase of the SDLC. Projects seldom are that simple; backtracking is normally required.
Work- breakdown structure (WBS)
A hiearchy of the tasks required to complete a project.