IS 4410

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Author:
jordanfawson
ID:
118732
Filename:
IS 4410
Updated:
2011-11-23 17:58:28
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Chapter 12
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Description:
Chapter 12 vocabulary.
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  1. Adware
    Programs installed on the user's computer without the user's knowledge or permission that reside in the bachground and, unknown to the user, observe the user's actions and keystrokes, modify computer activity, and report the user's activities to sponsoring organizations Most adware is benign in that it does not perform malicious acts or steal data. It does, however, watch user activity and produce pop-up ads.
  2. Asymmetric encryption
    An encryption method whereby different keys are used to encode and to decode the message: one key encodes the message, and the other key decodes the message. Symmetric encryption is simpler and much faster than asymmetric encryption.
  3. Authentication
    The process whereby an information system approves (authenticates) a user by checking the user's password.
  4. Biometric authentication
    The use of personal physical characteristics, such as fingerprints, facial featres, and retinal scans, to authenticate users.
  5. Bot
    A computer program that is surreptitiously installed and that takes actions unknown and uncontrolled by the computer's owner or administrator.
  6. Bot herder
    The individual or organization that controls a botnet.
  7. Botnet
    A network of bots that is created and managed by the individual or organization that infected the network with the bot program.
  8. Certificate authority (CA)
    Trusted, independent third-party company that supplies public keys for encryption.
  9. Cold sites
    Remote processing centers that provide office space, but no computer equipment, for use by a company that needs to continue operations after a disaster.
  10. Denial of service
    Security problem in which users are not able to access an information system; can be caused by human errors, natural disaster, or malicious activity.
  11. Digital certificate
    A document supplied by a certificate authority (CA) that contains, among other data, an entity's name and public key.
  12. Digital signature
    Encrypted message that uses hashing to ensure that plaintext messages are received withou alteration.
  13. Drive-by sniffers
    People who take computers with wireless conections through an area and search for unprotected wireless networks in an attempt to gain free internet access or to gather unauthorized data.
  14. Email spoofing
    A synonym for phishing. A technique for obtaining unauthorized data that uses pretexting via email. The phisher pretends to be a legitimate company and sends email requests for confidential data, such as account numbers, Social Security numbers, account passwords, and so forth. Phishers diret traffic to their sites under the guise of a legitimate business.
  15. Gramm-Leach-Bliley (GLB) Act
    Passed by Congress in 1999 this act protects consumer financial data stored by financial institutions, which are defined as banks, securities firms, insurance companies, and organizations that provide financial advice, prepare tax returns, and provide similar financial services.
  16. Hacking
    Occurs when a person gains unauthorized access to a computer system. Although some people hack for the sheer joy of doing it, other hackers invade systems for the mailcious purpose of stealing or modifying data.
  17. Hardening
    A term used to describe server operating systems that have been modified to make it especially difficult for them to infiltrated by mal-ware.
  18. Hashing
    A method of mathematically manipulating an electronic message to create a string of bits that characterize the message.
  19. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
    The privacy provisions of this 1996 act give individuals the right to access health data created by doctors and other health-care providers. HIPAA also sets rules and limits on who can read and receive a person's health information.
  20. Hot site
    A remote processing center run by a commercial disaster-recovery service that provides equipment a company would need to continue operations after a disaster.
  21. Identification
    The process whereby an information system identifies a user by requiring the user to sign on with a username and password.
  22. IP spoofing
    A type of spoofing whereby an intruder uses another site's IP address as if it were that other site.
  23. Kerberos
    A system, developed at MIT, that authenticates users without sending their passwords across a computer network. It uses a complicated system of "tickets" to enable users to obtain services from networks and other servers.
  24. Key escrow
    A control procedure whereby a trusted party is given a copy of a key used to encrypt database data.
  25. Malware
    Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, and adware.
  26. Malware definition
    Patterns that exist in malware code. Antimalware vendors update these definitions continuously and incorporate them into their products in order to better fight against malware.
  27. Message digest
    A bit string of a specific, fixed length that is produced by hashing and used to produce digital signatures.
  28. Payload
    The program codes of a virus that causes unwanted or hurtful actions, such as deleting programs or data, or even worse, modifying data in ways that are undetected by the user.
  29. Personal identification number (PIN)
    A form of authentication whereby the user supplies a number that only he or she knows.
  30. Phishing
    A technique for obtaining unauthorized data that uses pretexting via email. The phisher pretends to be a legitimate company and sends an email requesting confidential data, such as account numbers, Social Security numbers, account passwords, and so forth.
  31. Pretexting
    A technique for gathering unauthorized information in which someone pretends to be someone else. A common scam involves a telephone caller who pretends to be from a credit card company and claims to be checking the validity of credit card numbers. Phishing is also a form of pretexting.
  32. Privacy Act of 1974
    Federal law that provides protections to individuals regarding records maintained by the U.S. government.
  33. Probable loss
    The "bottom line" of risk assessment; the likelihood of loss multiplied by the cost of the loss consequences (both tangible and intangible).
  34. Risk
    The likelihood of an adverse occurrence.
  35. Safeguard
    Any action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that reduces a system's vulnerability to a threat.
  36. Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
    A protocol that uses both asymmetric and symmetric encryption. SSL is a protocol layer that works between Levels 4 (transport) and 5(application) of the TCP-OSI protocol architecture. When SSL is in use, the browser address will begin with https://. The most recent version of SSI is called TLS.
  37. Security policy
    Management's policy for computer security. consisting of a general statement of the organization's security program, issue-specific policy, and system-specific policy.
  38. Security program
    A systematic plan by which an organization addresses security issues; consists of three components: senior management involvement, safeguards of various kinds, and incident response.
  39. Security threat
    A challenge to an information system that arises from one of three sources: human error and mistakes, malicious human activity, and natuaral events and disasters.
  40. Smart card
    A plastic card similar to a credit card that has a microchip. The microchip, which holds much more-data than a magnetic strip, is loaded with identifying data. Normally requires a PIN
  41. Sniffing
    A technique for intercepting computer communications. With wired networks, sniifing requires a physical connection to the network. With wireless networks, no such connection is required.
  42. Spoofing
    When someone pretends to be someone else with the intent of obtaining unauthorized data. If you pretend to be your professor, you are spoofing your professor.
  43. Spyware
    Programs installed on the user's computer without the user's knowledge or permission that reside in the backgroung and, unknown to the user, observe the user's actions and keystrokes, modify computer activity, and report the user's activities to sponsoring organizations. Malicious spyware captures kestrokes to obtain user names, passwords, account numbers, and other sensitive information. oOther spyware is used for marketing analyses, observing what users do, Web sites visited, products examined and purchased, and so forth.
  44. Symmetric encryption
    An encryption method whereby the same key is used to encode and to decode the message.
  45. Technical safeguards
    Safeguard that that involves the hardware and software components of an information system.
  46. Transport Layer Security (TLS)
    A protocol, using both asymmetric and symmetric encryption, that works between Leves 4 (transport) and 5 (application) of the TCP-OSI protocol architecture. TLS is the new name for a later verison of SSL.
  47. Trojan horse
    Virus that masquerades as a useful program or file. A typical Trojan horse appears to be a computer game, an MP2 music file, or some other useful, innocuous program.
  48. Uncertainty
    Those things we don't know.
  49. Usurpation
    Occurs when unauthorized programs invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs. Such unauthorized programs typically shut down the legitimate system and substitute their own processing.
  50. Virus
    A computer program that replicates itself.
  51. Vulnerability
    An opening or a weakness in a security system. Some vulnerabilites exist becuase there are no safeguards or becuase the existing safeguards are ineffective.
  52. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) also known as WPA2
    An improved wireless security standard developed by the IEEE 802.11 committee to fix the flaws of the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) standard. Only newer wireless hardware uses this technique.
  53. Wired equivalent Privacy (WEP)
    A wireless security standard developed by the IEEE 802.11 committee that was insufficiently tested before it was deployed in communications equipment. It has serious flaws.
  54. Worm
    A virus that propagates itself using the internet or some other computer network. Worm code is written specifically to infect another computer as quickly as possible.
  55. WPA2

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