US History 1

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memaryme12
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11874
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US History 1
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2010-03-30 18:45:45
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1789
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Vocabulary 17-22
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  1. African methodist Episopal Church (AMEC)
    is a methodist denomination founded church by Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, penn. 1816 from several black mentodist congregations in the mid atlantic area that wanted independance from white methodist.
  2. Second Great Awakening
    a period of great religious revival that extended into the antebullum period of the u.s. with wide spread christian evangelism & conversions same thing happened 1/2 century beforehand.
  3. Polygamy
    greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriages"
  4. Oneida
    a Native American/First Nations people and one of the five founding nations of the Iroqouis Confederacy
  5. eugenics
    is the study and practice of selecting breeding applied to humans, with the aim of improving the speicies. "improving human genetic qualities"
  6. Brook Farm
    also known as Brook Farm Institue of Agriculture & Education was a utopian experiance in communal living in the United States in the 1840's founded by former Unitarian min. George Ripley & wife Sophia Ripley in Mass., it was inspired by ideals of Transcedentalism.
  7. Solar Eclipse
    accurs when the moon passes the sun and the earth & the moon fully or partially covers the sun as viewed from some locations on earth
  8. Denmark Vesey
    originally Telemaque was an african american slave brought to the United States from the Caribean after purchasing his freedom , he planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebelion's in the US. Plans were leaked out and the leader and other's including Vesey were tried, convicted and executed. During the American Civil War, abolitionist Frederick Douglas used Vessy's name in his battle cry
  9. The Liberator
    was an abolistionist newspaper founded by William Lloyed Garrison in 1831 this was published weekly continuasly for 35 years from Jan 1st, 1831 - Jan 1st 1866 three quarters of subscribers were African Americans nationwide notoriety for it's uncompromising advocacy of "immediate & compelete emancipation of all slaves" in the United States, Garrison set the tone opening letters with "to the publice " in the first issue.
  10. Republic of Liberia
    is a country on the west coast of Africa bordered Sierra Leon, Guinea & the Atlantic Ocean it's unique in Africa without roots in the European Scramble for Africa
  11. Nat Turner
    Nathaniel Turner was a slave who lead a slave rebellion in Virgnia on 08/21/1831 that resulted in 56 deaths amont the victums , the largest number of white fatalities to occur in one uprising in the antellubum southern united states
  12. Sojourner Truth
    American Abolisinist & feminist born into slavery she escaped in 1827 & became a leading preacher against slavery & for the rights of women.
  13. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    a 19th century American aurthor best known for he anti-slavery book Uncle Tom's Cabin had great political influence and advanced the cause of abolition.
  14. Frederick Douglas
    U.S Abolisionist the son of a slave mother and white father, worked as a house servent where he learned how to read. he fled to New York City then to New Bedford, Mass. he became a agent for the anti-slavery Society, he wrote his biography made enough money to buy his freedom then started the anti slavery newspaper the Northstar, he was Abraham Lincoln's consultant during Reconstruction he fought for civil rights for freedmen & supported woman's rights.
  15. Thirteenth Amendment
    constitution decalred that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist with in the United States. The ebolishment of slavery
  16. cotton
    most important to the vegetable fibers, & the plant which the fiber is harvested western U.S and 1/3 of the south harvest it in a irrigation system
  17. Junipero Serra
    Spanish missionary founded Franciscan missions in California
  18. Moses Austin
    American pioneer he developed lead mines in SW Virginia he inspected prospects in Missouri, then Spanish Territory he became a miner and trader in Potosi, Mo He tried to get the Spanish Goverment to settle 500 families in Texas, he died before seeing it happened his son Stephen F. Austin succedded after him.
  19. Rio Grande
    1,885 mi. long river, rising in SW Colorado in the San Juan mts., flowing south into New Mexico then going southwest as the border of Texas and Mexico
  20. James K. Polk
    a lawyer & former congressmen from Tennessee became the dark horse canidate for the democratic party in 1844, made it to the 11th presidency. he's noted for his foriegn policies he lead the Mexican-American War he issued the first postal stamp he died of cholera 3 months after his term ended.
  21. Fort Ross
    a former Russian establishment on the Pacific coast what is now Sonoma, Ca.
  22. Stephen A. Douglas
    "the Little Giant' he was a lawyer, one of the nations most powerful politicians he became a memeber of the General Assembly , Registar of the land served as Secratry of State appointed to Supreme Court, elected to Congress and then to the Senate. He guided the nation through the turbulant era before the Civil War also introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Bill he ran against Abraham Lincoln for Sentate and lost causing the Lincoln-Douglas debate.
  23. Sutter's Mill
    a sawmill owned by 19th century pioneer John Sutter. located in Coloma, Ca. it's associated with California's gold Rush, his partner James Marshall found several gold flakes that began the transformation of California.
  24. Jefferson Davis
    President of the Confederate States of America a statesmen born in Kentucky served in the Black Hawk War of 1831, married the daughter of Zachery Taylor when he was a colonral then became a cotton planter in Miss. entered polotics & became a popular speaker he took a seat in congres in 1845 he resigned his seat in 46 to be a colenrl of the Mississippi volunteers then was back as President.
  25. Fire Eaters
    a group of extremist pro-slavery poloticians from the south that urged the seperation of southern states into new nations which became the Confederate States of America
  26. Poor Man's diggings
  27. Dred Scott
    was a slave from the United States that sued unsecessfully in St. Louis, MO for his freedom in the Dred Scott v. Sanford case stating that he & his wife a slave followed there master and lived in free states he lost in the supreme court it was 7 to 1, judging that not he or anyone else of African heritage could claim citzenship in the United States.
  28. Underground Railroad
    a vast network of people & secret routes & safe houses who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North up to Canada aided by abolishinist. William Still is considered the Father of the Underground Railroad
  29. Border Ruffians
    in the decade leading up to the American Civil War, pro-slavery activist infiltrated Kansas Territory from the neighboring slave states. Abolisihionist & Free-staters wanted Kansas to be admited as a Free State of the Union. Some of the Border ruffians actually owned slaves they were too poor and were encouraged by there hatred of the Yankees and the idea that free blacks would be neighboring them.
  30. Bleeding Kansas
    Bloody Kansas, Border War was a series of violent events involving anti-slavery Free-staters & pro-slavery it became a proxy war between the North & the South over the decision of Kansas to become Free or a slave state it then began the saga of the American Civil War it then started the Kansas-Nebraska Act which nullified the Missouri Compromise & implemented the popular soverigntry. Kansas was admited into the Union and became a free state.
  31. Doughface
    a Norther congressmen no opposed to slavery in the South before or during the American Civil War also a Northerner sympathetic to the South during the same period
  32. burned-over district
    the name given to a swath of land across western New York that experienced one religious experience after another in 1820's, 1830's & 1840's.It was a hothead of religious mania & experimentation amoung the notable people that lived in the district.
  33. Great Disapointment
    On March 21, 1844 thousands or hundreds of William Miller's followers gathered in New York on hilltops or churces for the second coming of Christ. Which Miller had predicted when it didn't happen the Millerites called that day the Great Disapointment.
  34. moral suasonisis
    the temperance movement of the 19th century split early on how to fight the evil of drunkeness. They said that it was a person's moral decision to drink moderatly or not. They were the AA of the early 19th century legal suasonists tried to get rid of drinking all together to stop alchoul production
  35. Pennsylvania System
    An early but quickly abandoned prision reform: all inmates lived in solitary confinement in individual cells. The hope was long periods of meditation of thier crimes would result in reform it was a form of Evangalist punishment of crimes through personal redemtion. it was Expensive and mental breakdowns of convicts were frequent.
  36. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    One of the founders of American Feminisim, she resented the disabilities she suffered because of her sex from girlhood. Her and several woman who tried to sit on the floor of a anti-slavery convention were denied she devoted her life to winning the vote & professional oppurtunities for woman & reforming divorce laws.
  37. Millerites
    Follower of William Miller who predicted the end of the world & the 2nd coming of Christ in 1843. When it didn't come true they regrouped and were named the Seventh Day of Adventist
  38. Nauvoo
    City in Western Illinois during several years in 1840's as the home of Jospeh Smith & the Mormons. in was the largest city in the city. When Jospeh was killed in a mob in 1844, Brigham Young led the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake basin.
  39. William Ellery Channing
    prominent boston clergyman who, in 1819, denounced the Calvinist doctrine of predestination. he was instrumental in the founding of the American Unitarian Association in 1825 & became a moderate advocate of the abolition of slavery.
  40. American Colonization Society
    Founded in 1817 to help free blacks emigrate to West Africa. the society hoped that by answering slave owners fears of a large free black population in the United States they would be encouraged to free their slaves. presidents madison & Monroe supported it, as did other prominent southerners like John Marshall & Henry Clay.
  41. gag rule
    derogatory term for a rule adopted by the House of Representatives in 1836 to table, that is, not to consider. abolitionist petitions presented to Congress. Congressmen John Q, Adams while finding the abolitionists disruptive, insisted they had a right to be heard & eloquently fought against the gag rule.
  42. paddyrollers
    southern dialect for patrollers; armed & mounted bands of white men, sometimes volunteers sometimes hired by the county who rode the roads & plantations of the south by night looking for slaves.
  43. positive good
    catchword applied to the aggressive defense of slavery that was a response to the abolitionist movement during the 1830's. most white southerns had considered slavery at best a necessary evil saddled on the south by history after 1830's proslavery American's ceased to be defensive & maintained that slavery was a positive good for both whites & blacks.
  44. Denmark Vesy
    A free black carmenter & Methodist preacher in charleston, he organized an abortive slave rebellion in 1822. he had been a seaman as a boy & intended for the rebel slaves to seize ships & sail for haiti. An informer betrayed the conspiracy, & him & other ringleaders were hanged.
  45. George Fitzhugh
    Southern lawyer whose books combined praise fo slavery as a benign institution & condemnation of the materialism of the North with its exploration of the free wage workers he was a major proponent of the "positive good" proslavery argument.
  46. Fugative slave Act
    one of the provisions of the north-south compromise of 1850 it was designed to foil the underground railroads by which 1000 to 1500 slaves were escaping their masters ea year. antislavery northern state judge who had frustrated attempts to return runaway slaves were bypassed by the creation of federal commisioners who ruled on the claims of slave owners & slave catchers & assisted them. it meant that the northerner that assisted them would be fined and jailed but for the slaves it didn't just mean to runaway to another state to be free but they had to go somewhere the US law couldn't reach them.
  47. pecuiliar institution
    a term that white southerners refered to slavery. another word to use so they didn't have to say the word slavery
  48. slave driver
    term applied to a suppervisor over slaves, an overseer, who was himself a slave. After the American Civil War they were considered harder then the white overseers or masters. Possibly because of the advantages and privilegas it encouraged such behavior.
  49. Uncle Tom's Cabin
    novel by harriet B Stowe published in 1852 it was the most effective proganda the antislavery published. it's about a kindly, religious slave who was passed around from owner to owner who saw the worst & the best of southern slave owners. she based the events on things she had read in the papers, when questioned she made a insert quoting the events.
  50. minstrel show
    minstrel is a medievil word meaning a traveling musician. it meant white perfomers with black faces on a show dancing, singing on plantation scenes with a comedic angle it was popular in the 19th centuries.
  51. sarah & angeline grimike
    daughters of a distiguished wealth south carolina planter & slave owner. they became abolishionist and despite thier social standing they were harrassed so they moved to the North
  52. Stephen Collin Foster
    the first writer of popular songs to be recognized as and individual. he had to constantly polish his songs but he did all kinds of music but most famous for his parlor songs and his ethoipian music for minstral shows. he did it not to dehumanize african slaves but the opposite.

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