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  1. what is the exernal genitalia collectively referred to?
    vulva or pudendum
  2. what is the vestibule?
    is the space into which the vagina and urethra open
  3. what organs make up the female reproductive system?
    ovaries, urterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
  4. what does the broad ligament hold together?
    extension of peritoneum that spreads from both sides of uterus; contains ovaries and uterine tubes
  5. what does the round ligament hold together?
    from uterus through inguinal canals to labia majora
  6. what does the uterosacral ligament hold together?
    from lateral wall of uterus wall of uterus to sacrum
  7. what is the three layers of the uterine tubes?
    serosa, muscular layer, and mucosa
  8. where are the ovarian follicles found in the ovaries?
  9. what is the purpose of FSH after menarche?
    stimulates maturation of primordial follicles into primary follicles
  10. what is the three phases of the menstral cycle?
    • menses
    • follicular (proliferative) phase
    • luteal (secretory) phase
  11. what controls the onset of the menstrual cycle?
    duration of the phases controlled by release of hormones from hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
  12. what initiates the development of primary follicles?
  13. Larger follicles secrete ______ that inhibits development of other follicles
  14. what promotes follicular growth and maturation?
  15. what hormone initiates ovulation?
  16. the clitoris consists of....
    • shaft and glans
    • (contains many sensory receptors that are similar to those in the penis)
    • - contains two corpus cavernosa
    • (erectile tissue that becomes engorge with blood in the same matter as the penis)
  17. the uterus
    • Flattened anteroposteriorly
    • (consist of the fundus, body, and cervix)
    • -fundus contain openings of the uterine tubes
    • -cervix contains opening of vagina through the cervical canal (opening is ostium)
  18. uterine (fallopian) tubes open into_______ to recieve ______ from ovary.
    peritoneal cavity, oocyte
  19. At birth, most of _______ have become _______ that have begun meiosis
    • oogonia, primary oocyte
    • –arrested in prophase I
    • –surrounded by single layer of granulosa cells
    • –structure is called primordial follicle
  20. At menarche, about ______ primordial follicles remain
  21. After menarche, ______ released in cycles
    stimulates maturation of primordial follicles into primary follicles
  22. what stimulates the maturation of primordial follicles into primary follicles
  23. what are some chacteristics of primary follicles that differenate into primary oocytes?
    • -growth of the primary oocyte and granulosa cells
    • -granulosa cells now form several layers
    • -layers of clear material around primary oocytes is the zona pellucida
  24. some primary follicles develop into secondary oocytes
    • -granulosa forms more layers
    • -fluid-filled vesicles form among granulosa cells
  25. At maturity of the ovarian follicle, vesicles fuse to form_______
    • antrum (a single fluid-filled chamber)
    • –now called mature (Graafian) follicle
    • –granulosa cells secrete fluid into antrum
    • –cumulus mass forms around oocyte
  26. secondary oocyte enter ______, but stops in ______
    • meosis II, metaphase II
    • (will remain in metapahse II until fertilzation occurs)
  27. Following rupture, ________ undergo mitosis rapidly, form ________
    granulosa cells, corpus luteum
  28. what do the corpus lutumn secrete following ovulation after rupture?
    it begin to secrete progesterone and estrogen
  29. how long do the oocyte remain functional but in the absence of fertilization began to degenerate?
    • 10-12 days
    • -progesterone, estrogen levels decline
    • -corpus luteum becomes corpus albicans due to enlargement of CT cells
  30. durning the onset of the menstral cycle, the phases are controlled by....
    release of hormones from the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus
  31. During menses, _________ is sloughed and expelled (menstruation)
    • uterine epithelium
    • (typically last 4-5 days)
    • (typically 14 days from ovulation to menses)
  32. Early in cycle, _____ pulses from _______ are about 16-24/day and estrogen levels are _____.
    • GnRH, hypothalamus, low
    • (stimulates release of FSH and LSH from anterior pituitary)
  33. what stimulates the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary
    GnRH pulse from the hypothalamus
  34. FSH promotes
    • follicular growth and maturation
    • –Follicles secrete estradiol, convert androgens to estrogen
    • –Number of LH receptors increase
    • –Estrogens still inhibit LH secretion
  35. the uterine cycle refers to
    the changes in the endometrium of the uterus durning the menstral cycle
  36. the endometrium proliferates at the ______ of _____
    • end, menses
    • –Follicles secrete estradiol, convert androgens to estrogen
    • –Number of LH receptors increase
    • –Estrogens still inhibit LH secretion
  37. what initiates the development of primary follicles?
  38. how long do it take a follice to mature?
    a coulple of dozen begin to mature, these follicles may take 2-3 cycles to fully mature, or may degenerate
  39. how many follicles normally ovulates
  40. Larger follicles secrete _____ that _____ development of other follicles
    estrogen, inhibits
  41. what are the forr stages of female sexuality?
    • -excitment
    • -plateau
    • -orgasm
    • -resolution
  42. what is the purpose of estrogen in females?
    • -promote development and maintenance of female reproductive structures, feminine secondary sex charcteristics, and breasts
    • -increase protein anabolism
    • -lower blood cholestrol
    • -moderate levels inhib release of GnRH, FSH, and LH
  43. in the follicular phase, some secondary follicles develop, they secrete _____ which makes ______ levels falls slightly
    inhibin , FSH
  44. what to combinations further follicular maturation?
    FSH, and LH
  45. as a follicle matures and prepares to erupt the amount of _____ increases greatly
    • estrogen
    • –GnRH pulses increase to 36/day

    –GnRH pulses and extremely high estrogen levels increase LH production (the extremely high estrogen levels no longer inhibit LH secretion)

    –High estrogen levels increase sensitivity to GnRH

    –Causes massive surge in LH secretion and smaller surge in FSH
  46. in the secretory phase _____ surge initiates ovulation
    • LH
    • –Causes primary oocyte to finish meiosis I just before or during ovulation
    • –Ovulated follicle stimulated to form corpus luteum
  47. after ovulation what happens with estrogen and progesterone?
    • estrogen production decreases and progesterone levels rise greatly
    • (Causes large drop of GnRH, LH and FSH)
  48. what maintains the corpus lutuem?
  49. as the corpus luteum degenerates what happen to estrogen and progestorone levels
    • progesterone levels drop; estrogen levels drop further
    • (Causes onset of menses)
  50. endometrium proliferates after the _____ of ______.
    • end, menses
    • –Initiated by estrogen
    • –Begin as cuboidal cells; become columnar and fold to form spiral glands
    • -Spiral arteries project through CT to nourish endometrial cells
    • –Endometrial (spiral) glands secrete fluids to prepare for implantation
  51. functional zone
    • –Zone closest to uterine lumen
    • –Contains most of uterine glands
    • –Most of endometrial thickness
    • –Proliferates, then degenerates during menses
  52. Basilar zone
    • –Contains terminal branches of endometrial (spiral) glands
    • –Attaches endometrium to myometrium
  53. Branches of uterine arteries form arcuate arteries that encircle endometrium
    • –Radial arteries branch off from arcuate artery
    • *Branches to form straight (basilar zone) and spiral (functional zone) arteries
  54. At about day 21 (7 days after ovulation), _______ is ready for ________.
    endometrium, implantation
  55. As corpus luteum degenerates, _______ and ________ levels fall
    progesterone, estrogen
  56. what is the sex drive controlled by in females?
    the sex drive is controlled by conversion of progesterone to androgens by adrenal glands
  57. sexual stimulation is under what control
    • cerebral control
    • (Causes parasympathetic stimulation of breasts, genitalia)
  58. what triggers an orgasm?
    Combination of cerebral stimuli and stimulation of perineum trigger orgasm
  59. resolution does not result in _______.
    • refractory period
    • –After initial relaxation, successive orgasms are possible with continued stimulation
    • –While orgasm in male is required for fertilization, female orgasm is not required for fertilization
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