Common discomforts during pregnancy/interventions

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Common discomforts during pregnancy/interventions
2011-11-28 11:48:11
Common discomforts during pregnancy interventions

Common discomforts during pregnancy/interventions
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  1. Nausea and vomiting
    May occur during the first trimester

    patient should eat crackers or dry toast 1/2 to 1 hr before rising in the morning

    avoid having an empty stomach and ingesting spicy, greasy, or gas-forming foods

    encourage to drink fluids between meals
  2. Breast tenderness
    may occur during the first trimester

    patient should wear a bra that provides adequate support
  3. Urinary frequency
    may occur during the first and third trimester

    patient should empty bladder frequently, decrease fluid intake before bedtime, and use perineal pads.

    patient should be taught how to perform kegel exercises to reduce stress incontinence
  4. Urinary tract infections (UTI)
    common because of renal changes and vaginal flora becoming more alkaline

    • encourage patient to wipe the perineal area from front to back after voiding
    • avoid bubble baths
    • wear cotton underpants
    • avoid tight-fitting pants
    • consume plenty of water (8 glasses a day)

    urinate before and after intercourse to flush bacteria from the urethra

    urinate as soon as the urge occurs

    notify physician if urine is malodorous or contains blood or pus
  5. Fatigue during pregnancy
    may occur during the first and third trimesters

    encourage to engage in frequent rest periods
  6. Heartburn during pregnancy
    occur during the second and third trimesters due to the stomach being displaced by the enlarging uterus and a slowing of the gastrointestinal tract motility and digestion brought about by increased progesterone levels

    the patient should eat small frequent meals, not allow the somach to get too empty or too full, sit up for 30 min after meals, and check with her physician prior tousing any over the counter antacids
  7. Constipation during pregnancy
    may occur during the second and third trimesters

    patient should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids, eat a diet high in fiber, and exercise regularly
  8. Hemorrhoids during pregnancy
    may occur during the second and third trimesters

    a warm sitz bath, witch hazel pads, and topical ointments applied to the area will help relieve discomfort
  9. Backaches during pregnancy
    common during the second and third trimesters

    patient should be encouraged to exercise regularly, perform plevic tilt exercises (alternately arching and straightening the back), use proper body mechanics using the legs to lift rather than the back, and use the side-lying poeition
  10. Shortness of breath and dyspnea
    may occur because the diaphragm is elevated about 4cm by the enlarged uterus which limits diaphragm expansion on inspirtation

    Teach patient to maintain good posture, sleep with extra pillows, and contact physician if sympotms worsen
  11. Leg cramps during pregnancy
    during the third trimester may occure due to the compression of the lower extremity nerves and blood bessels by the enlarging uterus

    this can result in poor periperal circulation as well as an impalance in the calcium/phosphorus ratio

    Homans' sign should be checked and if it is negative the client should extend the affected leg, keepng the knww straight and dorsiflexing the foot (toes tward the head)

    massaging and applying heat over the affected muscle or a foot massage while the leg is extended can help relieve cramping

    patient should notify her physician if frequent carmping occurs
  12. Varicose veins and lower extremity edema
    occur during the second and third trimester

    patient should rest with her legs elevated, avoid constriction clothing, wear support hose, avoid sitting or standing in one position for extended periods of time, and should not sit with her legs crossed at the knees.

    patient should sleep in the left-lateral position and exercise moderately with frequent walking to stimulate venous return
  13. Gingivitis, nasal stuffness, and epistaxis (nosebleeds)
    can occur as a result of elevated estrogen levels causing an increased vascularity and proliferation of connective tissue

    patient should gently brush her teeth, observe good dental hygiene, use a hymidifier, and use normal saline nose drops or spray
  14. Braxton Hicks contractions
    occur from the first trimester onward, may increase in intensity and frequency during the third trimester.

    teach patient that a change of position and walking should cause contractions to subside

    if contractions increase in intensity and frequency (true contractions) with regularity, the patient should notify the physician
  15. Surpine Hypotention
    occurs when patient lies on her back and the weight of the gravid uterus compresses her ascending vena cava

    • this reduces blood supply to the fetus
    • the patient may experience feeling os lightheadedness and faintness

    teach patient to lie in a side lying or semi sitting position with her knees slightly flexed