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  1. Race is a _____, a fabrication of the human mind.
    myth
  2. What is the first myth of race?
    Any race is superior to others
  3. What is the second myth about race?
    that "pure" races exist
  4. Race is so arbitrary that biologists and athropologists cant agre on ___________.
    how many races there are
  5. Most people appear to be ______. and believe that their own race (even if a little) is superior to other ones.
    ethnocentric
  6. What is the word ethnicity derived from?
    the word "ethnos" (greek meaning: people or nation)
  7. The words ethnicity and ethnic referes to people who idenitify with one another on the basis of what?
    common ancestry and cultural heritage
  8. Who defined the term "minority group" ?
    Louis Wirth
  9. What are the shared conditions of minority groups?
    Their physical or cultural traits are held in low esteem by the dominant group, when treats them unfairly, and they tend to marry within their own group.
  10. A minority group is not necessarily a _______ minority.
    numerical
  11. The people who discriminate against the minority are not the majority but the _______.
    dominant group
  12. The dominant group considers its privileged position to be the result of ________.
    its own innate superiority
  13. What are the two ways a group becomes a minority?
    • Through the expansion of political boundaries
    • migration
  14. The third way of how (women) became a minority is .....
    not known yet.
  15. Who identified the "sense of ethnicity?"
    Ashley Doane
  16. What is the basic gist of the "sense of ethnicity"
    • You have low sense of ethnicity if you are (part of the majority, the greater power, similiar to the "national identity", not a victim of discrimination)
    • You have a heightened sense of ethnicity if you are )Part of samller numbered gropus, the lesser power, different from the "national identity", discrimnated against)
  17. Discrimnation is an ______
    Prejudice is an _________
    • action
    • attitude
  18. What is positive prejudice?
    Exaggerates the virtues of a group, as when people think that some group (usually their own) is more capable than others.
  19. How do people learn prejudice?
    • Association (inducted into KKK Groups)
    • Far-reaching nature of prejudice (hating the different and unkown)
    • Internalizing Dominant norms (learning to be prejudice against your own kind)
  20. What is the internalization of the norms of the dominant group?
    When people learn to be prejudiced against their own group.
  21. Who created the implicit association test?
    • Mahzarin Banaji
    • Anthony Greenwald
  22. Why was the implicit association test created?
    To study the internalization of dominant groups
  23. Briefly explain the expeirment of the implicit association test.
    Good and bad words associated with african americans and whites. Both blacks AND whites associated bad words with african americans and good words with whites.
  24. We learn the ethnic maps of our culture along with ____.
    their route to biased perception
  25. Although individual discrimination creates problems, it is primarily __________.
    an issue between individuals
  26. Sociologist encourage us to examine ________ discrimination.
    institutional
  27. What are two examples of instituional discrimination?
    • Home Mortgages
    • Healthcare
  28. African americans and latinos are ____% more liekly to be rejected for loan for home mortgages than whites.
    60
  29. Banks purposely targeted ______to charge higher interest rates.
    minorities
  30. A consequence of the higher payments for african americans and latinos was that.....
    they were more likely to lose their homes.
  31. Both black and white doctors are more likely to give preventive care to _____ instead of _____.
    • whites
    • blacks
  32. We are certain that doctors _______ to discriminate against patients.
    do not intend
  33. The reason that ethnicity is a factor in medial decisions is .....?
    unknown by researchers
  34. In the health care system regarding mother/child deaths.. African american mothers are ______ times likely to die as white mothers.
    three
  35. African american babies are ______ as more likely to die when study mother/child deaths, than white babies.
    twice
  36. Is the higher rate of black mothers and children dying than whites an issue of biology or sociology?
    sociology (social conditions, nutriton and medical care)
  37. What are the two pyschological explanations of prejudice?
    • Frustration and Scapegoats
    • The authoritarian personality
  38. Who suggested that prejudice is a result of frustration?
    John Dollard
  39. What was the explanation that of the frustration and scapegoats theory?
    People are prejudice because they are frustrated with their lives (unemployment, debt, etc.) They often pick a scapegoat and blame solely them for their problems, ultimately leading to prejudices.
  40. Who led a studying showing that mild frustration can increase prejudice?
    Emroy Cowen.
  41. What was Emroy Cowen study on frustration and scapegoats?
    Gave a students a puzzle with not enough time to finish it. Students got frustrated and exhibited an increase of prejudice.
  42. Who is responsible for the research of the authoritarian personality?
    Theodor Adorno
  43. What was Adorno's study on the authoritarian personality?
    Surveyed 2,000 people ranging from college professor to prision inmates) Gave them three tests to measure their ethnocenterism, anti-Semitism and support for strong, authoritarian leader.
  44. What were the results from Adorno's experiements?
    People who scored high on one test usually scored high on the two other tests as well.
  45. Who did researchers find to be more likely to be authoritarian?
    • People who are older..
    • less educated
    • less intelligent
    • lower social class
  46. Sociologists find that psychological explanations are _______.
    inadequate
  47. Highly prejudice people are insecure _______.
    conformists
  48. Sociologists explain prejudice in what three ways?
    • Functionalist theory
    • Conflict theory
    • Symbolic interactionism theory
  49. Explain the functionalist view on prejudice
    Claim that societies need prejudice to function. Nazis werent to get to start off, so blamed the jews and took everything from them, making prejudice functional for them.
  50. Who demonstrated functional prejduice at a boys' summer camp?
    Muzafer and Carolyn Sherif
  51. What did the sherif experiment result in?
    Tauht sociologist important lessons about social life. Kids who were best friend prior to the exp. had turned against each other. It's easy to create or make a group prejudice if they are pitted against each other.
  52. How do conflict theorist view prejudice?
    They analyze how groups are pitted against one another. They focus on how the arrangement always betters social group with power.
  53. What are the two ways business owners create divisions and weaken labor?
    • Keep workers insecure
    • Exploit racial-ethnic divisions.
  54. Keeping workers insecure and drawing on the unemployed to expand business' production is usually a result in a _________ force
    reserve labor
  55. When business' exploit racial-ethnic divisions a _______ market is usually formed.
    split labor
  56. What deflects anger and hostility away from the power elite?
    Divisions among workers
  57. What is the symbolic interactionist's view on prejudice?
    • That labels create prejudice
    • Labels produce prejudice behavior
  58. Symbolic interactionists stress that the labels we learn affect the way we...
    perceive people
  59. Labels cause _______ perception.
    selective
  60. Some stereotypes _______ prejudice and discrimination but also ________ the behavior depicted in the stereotype.
    • justify
    • produce
  61. What is the global pattern of intergroup relations? (In order)
    • Genocide
    • Population Transfer
    • Internal Colonialism
    • Segregation
    • Assimilation
    • Muticulturalism (pluralism)
  62. Genocide
    Dominant group tries to destroy the minority
  63. Population transfer
    The dominant group exples the minority group
  64. Internal colonialism
    The dominant group exploits the minority group
  65. Segregation
    The dominant group structures the social institutions to maintain minimal contact with the minority group
  66. Assimilation
    The dominant group absorbs the minorty group
  67. Muticulturalism (pluralism)
    The dominant group encourages racial and thnic variation; when successful, there is no longer a dominant group
  68. Labeling a targeted group as inferior or even less than fully human facilitates .....
    genocide
  69. Indirect transfer
    Making life miserable so that people leave "voluntarily"
  70. direct transfer
    when a dominant group expels a minority
  71. Forced assimilation
    Dominant group refuses to allow the minority to practice its religion, language, or to follow it's customs
  72. permissible assimilation
    allows the minority to adopt the dominant group's patterns in its own way and at its own speed.
  73. Whites make up _______% of the u.s population.
    66
  74. Minorities make up _______% of the U.S Population
    32
  75. ___% of the u.s population claim to be two or more races.
    1-2
  76. Minorities tend to be _______ in regions
    clustered
  77. What was the event that best illustrates the racial view of the nation's founders?
    The first continental congress of the united states when they passed the Naturalization act of 1790 (only white immigrant could apply for citizenship)
  78. The WASPs was races against
    all other white ethnics
  79. Who established the culture of early america?
    Protestant English immigrants
  80. Because protestant english immigrants settled the colonies...
    they established the culture
  81. the terms latinos and hispanics refer to ...
    ethnic groups (Not race)
  82. What keeps latin imigrants from getting good jobs?
    Language barrier
  83. The divisions in the diversity of the latinos cause...
    and obstacle to political unity
  84. How many latino U.S senators are there?
    three
  85. What percentage of seats in the U.S house of representatives is latino?
    5%
  86. together, latinos and african americans make up more then _____ of the us population
    1/4
  87. When compared to all latinos, _____ have more background in education
    cubans
  88. What did whites use to strip the political power blacks gained from the civil war?
    segregation
  89. When did blacks gain the right to attend the same schools as whites?
    1954
  90. what percentage of blacks are in the u.s house of representatives?
    10 percent
  91. Half of the blacks income is more than
    40,000 a year
  92. 1 in 5 of the blacks income is more than
    75,000 a year
  93. 1 in 9 of blacks income is over
    100,000 a year
  94. how many u.s senators are black?
    1

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