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name the functions of the urinary system?
- -filtering blood
- -regulation of blood volume, blood ion concentrations, interstitual fluid pH, erythropoiesis
- -Vitamin D synthesis
name the two sections of the kidneys and what they contain?
- -cortex (outer)
- (contains most of the nephrons)
- (contains renal pyramids)
reabsorbed substances diffuse into _______, carried back into circulation
what is the typical filtration pressure?
- -blood hydrostatic pressure 55 mg Hg
- -capsule pressure 30 mm Hg
- -colloid osmotic pressure 15 mm Hg
- 55-30-15= 10 mg Hh filtration pressure
how do most substance filtered out diffuse out of the tubules and enter interstitual fluid?
- -may diffuse freely
- -undergo facilitated diffusion
what process help helps maintain a large concentration difference between cytoplasm of cell and lumen of tubule?
transport of na+ through basal surface coupled with import of K+ from interstitial fluid
what is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
it secretes renin if blood pressure in the arteriole decreases, or na+ in distal tubules decreases
what is urea?
primary nitrogenous metabolic waste
in the loop of henle the descending limp is _____ to water.
in the loop of henle the ascending limb is ____ to water
what is another name for the renal corpuscle?
what types of cells do the renal corpuscle contain?
- -outer layer is the parietal layer
- (simple squamous epithelium)
- -inner layer
what do the renal filtration membrane consist of?
capillary endothelial cells + basement membrane + podocytes = renal filtration membrane
what co-transport solutes that are usually reabsorbed in tubular reabsorption?
the filtration membrane filter through?
water, electrolytes, glucose, amino acids, fatty acid, vitamins, urea, uric acid, creatinine
the filtration membrane turn back
- -blood cells
- -plasma proteins
- -large anions
- -protein-bound minerals
what provides energy for transporting of other materials down its concentration gradient?
what is followed by osmosis?
where does most filtrate leave capillaries at?
in the glomerulus travels into proximal tubules
when filtrate leaves at the glomerulus, what comes out at this point and what remains in the rest of the filtrate?
- most of the water and useful ions are reabsorbed
- (only waste, excess ions, and small amount of water remain)
name the substance that are reabsorbed durning tubular reabsorption
- -glucose and fructose
- -amino acids
- -ions na+ ca2+, hco3-, cl-
what prohibts the exit of blood cells?
glomerulus capillaries are _______.
what percent of urea is passively reabsorbed?
what prevents filtration of larger proteins in the glomerular?
what allow plasma proteins to pass through in the glomerular endothelia cells, but prevents filtration of blood cells?
in the glomerular what prevents filtration of medium size protiens?
slit membrane between pedicels
how do a filitration membrane differ from a typical capilary?
a filtration membrane is much more permeable then a typical capillary