Constitutionalism in England

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  1. Background: Golden Speech
    • Elizabeth's last speech addressing Parliament
    • talked about having the pleasure to rule England
    • dies 1-2 years later
    • end of England's "golden ages"
  2. Elizabeth I (quick review)
    • successfully balanced power b/w crown and Parliament
    • 1st country (in Europe) to nationalize itself
  3. Quick Review of England's History
    • Parliaments develop in late 13th century
    • King John signs Magna Carta (1215); limits king's power w/ taxation
    • Hundred Years' War (England vs. France); England loses
    • Civil wars (War of the Roses); Tudor family wins
    • monarchs gain more power after Henry VIII; Parliament tries to get power back during James' reign
    • newly risen gentry (upper-middle class) favored ideas of Protestant Reformation in Switzerland and Germany; viewed Anglicanism as a form of discredited Catholicism by end of Tudor era
    • Puritanism=Calvinism in England
    • Robert Cecil=chief minister of James; enemy of Puritanism
    • Stuart Dynasty legacy=failure to install Absolutism in England; French Bourbon Dynasty was successful
  4. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 1)
    James I
    • son of Mary Queen of Scots
    • succeeds Elizabeth I and rules from 1603-1625
    • struggles on matters of taxation and civil liberties
    • Impositions: custom duties to provide sources of royal income; introduced to keep up with royal expenditure and reduce royal debt; used to rule w/o Parliament
    • House of Lords generally liked James; House of Commons (mostly Puritans) do not like James; believed he had too much power
    • concluded a peace treaty w/ Spain (1604); widely considered a sign of Pro-Catholic sentiment
  5. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 2)
    James I
    • Gunpowder Plot (1605): failed assassination attempt against James; plotted by militant Catholics; causes him to rethink lenient policy on Catholics; intensifies anti-Catholic feelings throughout nation
    • Oath of Allegience/Oath of Obedience (1606): systematic effort made to persecute Catholics at every turn from the cradle to the grave; penalized Catholic baptisms, marriages, burials, education, and acquisition of property
  6. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 3)
    James I
    • Parliament is dissolved in 1610
    • Privy Council: select group of "favorite" that goverened England; dilutes Elizabeth's legacy of strong representative government
    • summons Parliament in 1614 due to royal shortage; members discuss grievances of king; no bill is passed; meeting is dissolved by James
    • requests Parliament to pass new taxes in 1621; Parliament demands recognition of their authority before taxes are passed; James circumvents them by having gentlemen purchase knighthood and impositions
    • Great Protestation of 1621: adopted by Parliament; any Englishman of "ancient and undoubted birth right" could debate any topic in Parliament w/o fear of arrest or punishment; torn up by James; Parliament is dissolved
  7. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 4)
    James I
    • Hampton Court Conference (1604): meeting b/w James I, representatives of Anglican Church, and leading Puritans; James views Puritans as a threat to royal power; grants no concessions except King James Bible
    • many Puritans disliked James; emigrated to New England and Virginia
    • King James Bible (1611): compromise to satisfy Puritans and Anglicans; one of the most widespread English versions of the Bible; writing was overseen by Richard Bancroft (archbishop of Canterbury)
    • Anglicans used Bishop's Bible; Puritans used Geneva Bible; Puritans kept allegiance to Geneva Bible
    • religious concern increased when James is slow in dispatching troops to help Protestants in the Thirty Years' War (1618)
  8. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 5)
    Charles I and His Reign Over England
    • Charles I: son/successor of James; advocated Divine Right
    • Divine Right: belief that God has given the ruler all power; 1st advocate=James I
    • Parliament has a growing number of Puritans
    • Presbyterians: members of the Scottish Calvinist branch of Christianity; started by John Knox
    • Puritans: English Calvinists trying to make established Anglican Church more pure through Calvinism; sometimes called the Presbyterian Party
    • Parliament creates the Petition of Right (1628); stated that the king is subject to the law and cannot levy taxes w/o Parliamentary approval; Charles signs it but never limits his power (desperate for money)
    • Charles marries Henrietta Maria, devout Catholic
    • supported William Laud (part of his Privy Council) in trying to drive Puritans from Anglican Church
  9. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 6)
    Charles I and His Reign Over England
    • Revolt in Scotland/Bishop's Wars (1638): Charles orders the use of Anglican worship service in Presbyterian churches
    • Solemn League and Covenant: agreement b/w Scottish Covenanters and English Parliamentarians; condemned Charles for his claim to absolute power through divine right; signed by thousands of Scots
    • Charles doesn't meet w/ Parliament from 1629-1640; uses questionable and illegal methods of obtaining money (ship money; tax on coastal towns)
  10. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 7)
    Charles I and His Reign Over England
    • Short Parliament: Parliament that met for only 3 weeks in 1640; called by Charles who desperately needed money to suppress the Scottish revolt; members refuse to discuss war and complain about Charles' abuse of power; meeting dissolved
    • Star Chamber: English court; used by Charles to imprison his enemies; example of abuse of power
  11. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 8)
    Charles I and His Reign Over England
    • Charles loses the Bishops' Wars in 1640; forced to recall Parliament when on the brink of bankruptcy
    • Long Parliament: Parliament met for long time; could not be dissolved by the king; Triennial Act is passed (ensures that no more than 3 years could pass w/o them being called); Bishop Laud and Earl of Strafford (Thomas Wentworth) are impeached; king is barred from levying taxes w/o Parliamentary approval; Grand Remonstrance is created
  12. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (Background 9)
    Charles I and His Reign Over England
    • Grand Remonstrance: summarized religious and political grievances against Charles; one cause of the civil war; main writer=John Pym
    • Rebellion in Ireland (1641): Charles' Parliamentary opponents refuse to raise an army unless it's under their command
    • Charles leaves London w/ some of his Parliamentary supporters and several hundred troops; begins to raise an army while his opponents remain in London
    • House of Commons passes the Militia Ordinance; allows Parliament the right to raise an army
  13. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (1)
    • civil war breaks out in 1642
    • Roundheads: landowners and merchant class represented in Parliament; resented Charles taxes and absolutist attitude; Charles' opponents; Puritans in Parliament distrusted his Catholic wife; aligned with Scots (Presbyterians)
    • Cavaliers: aristocratic supports of King Charles and supporters of the Anglican Church hierarchy; royalists who controlled the north and the west; drew support from noble families
  14. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (2)
    • Oliver Cromwell: fierce Puritan Independent (extreme Puritan); military leader of the Roundheads; led New Model Army and Ironsides to victory in 1649
    • New Model Army: financed by Parliament's rich supporters; led by genlemen farmers (gentry); ranks filled with religious zealots; usual cross-section of poor artisans and day laborers
    • defeats Leveller and Digger mutinies
    • Levellers: led by "freeborn" John Lilburne; emphasized religious toleration, reform of law, free trade, rights guaranteed under written constitution, government answerable to people rather than to king or Parliament; ideas took hold in New Model Army over controversy w/ invasion of ireland; obstacle to Oliver Cromwell's rise to power
    • Diggers: called themselves "true levellers"; wanted "levelling of all estates" (abandonment of private property rights); too radical for Levellers who attempted to negotiate a political settlement within the existing social order
  15. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (3)
    • Pride's Purge: radical Puritans gain control of revolutionary movement and remove all moderates from the Parliament
    • Rump Parliament: English Parliament after Pride's Purge; votes to abolish monarcy, House of Lords, and Anglican Church
    • Charles is tried and executed in 1649 as a public criminal
    • England begins brief stint as a republic (although it's dominated by Cromwell); defeated Catholics in Scotland and Ireland
    • Cromwell dissolves Rump and Barebone Parliaments when opponents rise against him; he becomes Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (Commonwealth=Republic)
    • opponents of Cromwell=religious fanatics, Principled Republicans, Monarchists, and Rigid Puritans
    • Era known as the Interregnum (1649-1660); General George Monck was initially opposed to monarch; later believes monarchy should be brought back
    • England has had enough of Cromwell by 1660 (he died in 1658); Puritans restore monarchy and Anglican Church
  16. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (4)
    Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy
    • Charles Stuart (1660-1685): son of Charles I and Henrietta Marie; becomes 1st king of England after the Protectorate era (Oliver Cromwell in power)
    • marries Catherine of Braganza
    • reign is marked by relaxation of Puritan morality and Parliamentary fears over Charles II restoring Catholicism in England
    • attempted to give Catholics legal worship again; stopped by Parliament
    • 1661-1665, ultra-royalists in Parliament pass the Clarendon Code to cripple nonconformists' power (Catholics and Puritans); places strict restrictions on Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants (*excluded from church offices*; meetings for nonconformist worship=illegal even in private homes)
  17. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (5)
    Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy
    • Treaty of Dover (1670): Charles II aligns with France against the Dutch Republic
    • Declaration of Indulgence: suspended all laws against Roman Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants (counteracted the Clarendon Code); tried to make Louis XIV a favorable figure in England
    • Parliament refuses to fund war against Dutch until Charles II rescinds Declaration of Indulgence
    • Parliament passes Test Act (1673); barred nonconformists from civil and military positions; passed so James II (Charles' brother) couldn't become king; response to Declaration of Indulgence
  18. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (6)
    Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy
    • Popish Plot (1678): alleged plot to kill Charles II and put his brother James (Roman Catholic) on the throne; fabricated story of Jesuit led conspiracy created by Titus Oates; leads to Catholic distrust across the nation
    • Charles befriends Louis XIV of France for extra $ so he can rule w/o calling Parliament (1681-1685); executes and tries to drive out members of the Whig Party (opposition party to king) during this time
    • converts to Roman Catholicism on deathbed; replaced by younger brother James II
  19. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (7)
    James II as Ruler
    • James II: last Catholic monarch to inherit throne (1685-1688); attempts religious freedom of worship for Catholics
    • maintained standing army in peacetime; allowed Catholics to serve in highly ranked military positions
    • Received diplomatic representative of the Holy See (Catholic Church) in his ocurt
    • Revised Declaration of Indulgence (1688) to negate effects of laws previous passed to punish "Protestant Dissenters"; permits freedom of worship for Catholics; requires all Anglican clergymen to read the Declaration in their churches
    • William Sancroft: Archbishop of Canterbury; refuses to read the Declaration of Indulgence
    • Parliament hopes James II's Protestant daughter, Mary II, will replace her father on the throne; Mary II was married to William of Orange, leader of English opposition party to France and Louis XIV
  20. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (8)
    James II as Ruler
    • William of Orange is invited by Parliament (Whigs) to "invade" England and overthrow James II and his son James "the Old Pretender"
    • James and his son flee to France
    • Glorious Revolution (1688): installs William and Mary II as new monarchs of England (bloodless-no fighting)
  21. English Civil War or Puritan Revolution (9)
    England Under Mary II and William of Orange
    • Bill of Rights 1689: presented to William and Mary; Parliament secured its rights to assemble regularly and to vote on all matters of taxation; all Protestants, regardless of sectarian bias, are granted toleration; Roman Catholics are forbidden to sit on the throne
    • William and Mary II face Jacobite rebellions for the next several years
    • Jacobite rebellions: unsuccessful attempts to restore the Catholic House of Stuart (James "the Old Pretender" or Bonnie Prince Charlie "the Young Pretender)
    • Queen Mary dies of smallpox (1694); sister Princess Anne becomes queen while William still rules (until 1702)
    • Queen Anne's only son dies at 11; King WIlliam has no heir; remaining claimants are Roman Catholic (James "Old Pretender")
    • Act of Settlement (1701): English throne passes to ruler of the German state of Hanover (great-grandson of James I)
    • Act of Union (1707): Scotalnd merges with England (Queen Anne's last major political move) and becomes Great Britain
    • George I becomes King of Great Britain (1714)
  22. James I (Overview)
    • 1st Stuart
    • lenient policy on Catholics
    • Gunpowder Plot
    • clashed with Parliament
    • impositions to be independent form Parliament
    • passes ideas of Divine Right to son (Charles I)
  23. Charles I (Overview)
    • biggest Divine Right advocate
    • attempted absolutism
    • married Catholic (Henrietta Marie)
    • involved England in Bishops' Wars
    • Star Chamber
    • Short and Long Parliaments
    • English Civil War
  24. Oliver Cromwell (Overview)
    • Roundhead
    • New Model Army (Ironsides)
    • Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
    • Interregnum (basically ruled England by himself)
    • Rump Parliament
    • Barebone Parliament
  25. Charles II (Overview)
    • "Restored Monarch"
    • private Catholic; officially converts to Catholicism on deathbed
    • Treaty of Dover (alignment with France against Dutch)
    • Declaration of Indulgence (response to Clarendon Code)
    • Test Act (Parliament's response to Declaration of Indulgence)
    • Popish Plot
  26. James II (Overview)
    • publicly Catholic
    • hates Titus Oates (created widespread Catholic distrust)
    • believed Charles II should've been more Catholic
    • wants religious freedom for Catholics
    • last Catholic monarch
    • revised Declaration of Indulgence (1688)
    • permits free worship for Catholics
  27. Struggle for Constitutionalism (review)
    • Constutionalism: power shared b/w Parliament and monarchy
    • Parliament wins; monarchs are willing to share power (William and Mary)
    • British political system becomes model for progressive Europeans (unhappy w/ Absolutism)
    • Glorious Revolution of 1688=last revolution within England
    • Parliamentary institutions=gradually and peacefully reformed to express more democratic social reality
    • same cannot be said for other countries (19th and 20th Centuries)
  28. English Conclusion
    • England experienced a long conflict b/w Parliament and the Stuart monarchs during the 17th century
    • following the civil war of the 1640s and execution of charles I, England began an unsuccessful experiment in repubican government
    • restoration of 1660 (returned Stuarts to throne through Charles II) didn't provide resolution of political and religious differences b/w king and Parliament
    • issues came to a head during reign of James II; resulted in Glorious Revolution of 1688
    • revolutionary settlement reaffirmed established Church of England; placed restrictions of power of crown
    • Parliament's power increased (during 18th century) as crown's power declined
    • British constitutional monarchy became a model that reforms on the continent of Europe wanted to copy
Card Set:
Constitutionalism in England
2011-11-26 16:12:04
English Constitutionalism

A.P. European History
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