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  1. in sertoli cells what do testosterone convert to?
    dihydrotestosterone and estrogen
  2. what are some side effects of testosterone?
    • -body and hair growth
    • -enlargement of the penis, testes, and duct system @ puberty
    • -rougher skin texture
  3. what is the purpose of LH?
    Lh causes interstitual cells of seminiferous tubles to produce testosterone
  4. what does FSH do to the sertoli cells?
    FSH stimulates sertoli cells and promotes sperm maturation.
  5. what is spermatogonia?
    stem cells for sperm
  6. what muscle can contract and constrict the scrotum if needed?
    dartos muscles
  7. what is the two types of tissue contain loubles of the testes?
    • seminiferous tubules
    • - produce sperm
    • stroma (loose CT)
    • - contains endocrine cells (interstitial cells)
    • secrete testosterone
  8. what is the flow of sperm from the seminiferous tubules?
    seminiferous tubules > tubuli recti > rete testis >efferent ductules > epididymis
  9. what is the two main cells types of the seminiferous tubules?
    • Germ Cell
    • - become sperm
    • Sertoli (nurse) cells
    • -nourish sperm
    • -forms blood testis barrier
    • -produce some hormones
  10. what do sertoli cells require to be binded to them to function normally?
  11. what do testosterone convert to in sertoli cells?
    dihydrotestosterone and estrogen
  12. name another function of sertoli cells?
    secrete androgen-binding protein
  13. what do GnRH from the hypothalamus stimulate the release of?
    • FSH
    • -stimulate sertoli cells and promotes sperm maturation
    • LH
    • -causes interstitial cells of seminiferous tubules to produce testosterone
  14. sertoli cells produce ______ which ____ FSH production ( negative feed back loop)
    inhibin, inhibts
  15. what are some effects of testosterone?
    • -Increased retention of body fluids
    • -Elevation of protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass increase
    • -Rapid bone growth and Ca2+ deposition into bone
    • -Initiation and maintenance of male sexual behavior
    • -Influences cells in the hypothalamus that modify behavior
    • -Requires some conversion to estrogen by neurons
  16. what are some effects of testosterone in males secondary sex charcterstics?
    • -Body hair growth
    • -Enlargement of penis, testes, and duct system at puberty
    • -Rougher skin texture
    • -Higher melanin production
    • -Hypertrophy of larynx at puberty
    • -Elevation of metabolic rate
    • -Higher erythropoietin production (more RBCs than females)
  17. what type of cells divide by mitosis, that will differentiate to form primary spermatocytes?
  18. primary spermatocytes will undergo ______ to produce _______
    meosis, two secondary spermatocytes
  19. what happen in the first meiotic division to the cells?
    • the number of chromosomes is reduced
    • ( diploid to haploid)
  20. secondary spermatocytes complete _____ to become spermatids
  21. Spermatids undergo _____ to form mature
    spermiogenesis, spermatozoon
  22. ________ undergo _______ to develop into mature sperm
    Spermatids, spermiogenesis
  23. where do final maturation of sperm occur?
  24. _______emerges from tail of epididymis; becomes part of _________
    vas deferens, spermatic cord
  25. what does the spermatic cord consist of?
    • Spermatic cord consists of ductus deferens, nerves, arteries and veins, lymph vessels, and remnants of process vaginalis
    • (covered by the creamaster muscle)
  26. what helps move the testes away from or nearer to body, to control temperature
    cremaster muscle
  27. what is the end of the ductus deferens called?
  28. what joins seminal vesicles to ductus deferens?
    ejaculatory duct
  29. what is the three portions of the penis?
    prostatic, membranous, and spongy urethra
  30. what is the three columns of erectile tissue in the penis?
    • -Corpus cavernosum (X2)
    • -Corpus spongiosum
  31. circumcision consist of?
    the removal of the thinner layer of skin covering the glans penis ( foreskin or prepuce)
  32. semen consist of what?
    sperm cells + secrections of accessory gland
  33. what is the three stages of males sexual functions?
    • -Erection/excitation
    • -Orgasm/ejaculation
    • -Resolution
  34. what do the seminal vesicles secrete?
    • -fructose and nutrients for sperm
    • -some fibrinogen (coagulates sperm slightly after it is ejaculated)
    • -prostaglandins (can induce uterine contractions)
  35. Prostate secretes a thin fluid with high pH, what is the function of the fluid that is secreted?
    • -Helps neutralize urethra, vaginal acidity
    • -Also contains some clotting factors (involved in sperm coagulation)
    • -Also contains fibrinolysin (breaks up sperm clot to allow release of sperm at a later time)
  36. what is the make up grandular secertions?
    • -Most of fluid (>50%) from seminal vesicles
    • -About 1/3 from prostate
    • -About 5% from testes and bulbourethral
  37. Bulbourethral glands produce mucus-like substance that?
    • -Neutralizes pH in spongy urethra, which is usually <7.0
    • -Provides some lubrication for intercourse
    • -Reduces vaginal acidity for sperm
  38. excitation usually requires some sensory input from
    penis, scrotum, surrounding tissues
  39. what cause parasympathetic simulation of the penis testes and and accessory glands?
    • Internal pudendal nerve
    • -(relayed through pelvic nerve)
  40. From cerebrum....
    • Visual, mental, emotional stimuli from various parts of forebrain and midbrain cause sympathetic stimulation of genitals
    • ( relayed through pelvic nerve)
  41. what do an erection consists of ?
    • relaxation of smooth muscle surrounding the penile artery
    • ( Utilizes acetylcholine and nitric oxide (NO)
  42. erection causes ______ to increase blood flow into penis
  43. erection is usually under control of ______NS (some _______fibers can be involved)
    parasympathetic, sympathetic
  44. orgasm / ejactulation includes?
    • -Accumulation of spermatozoa and secretions of prostate, seminal vesicles within urethra
    • -Sympathetic NS causes constriction of internal urinary sphincter
    • -Somatic motor neurons cause skeletal muscles near base of penis to undergo rhythmic contractions
  45. Resolution involves....
    • -Blood flow to penis reduced by vasoconstriction
    • -Blood drained from erectile tissues in penis
    • -Erection subsides
  46. Excitation/erection.......
    brain / stimulation of genital region > spinal cord > pelvic nerve> efferent parasympathetic signal
    • -deep artery of penis dilates; erectile tissue engorge with blood, penis become erect
    • -trabecular muscle of erectile tissue relaxes; allows engorgement of erectile tissue ; penis becomes erect
    • -bulboureathra gland secretes bulbourethral fluid
  47. Action of Sildenafil (Viagra)
    sexual stimulation > Nitric oxide > activate guanylate cyclase > cGMP > Vasodilation and erection
  48. Orgasm / emission stage
    -spinal cord (L1-L2) > efferent sympathetic signal
    ductus deferens exhibitis peristalsis; sperm are moved into the ampulla; ampulla contracts; sperm are moved into the urethra
  49. orgasm - expulsion stage
    (Afferent signal > spinal cord > efferent somatic signals > sympathetic signal )
    • -prostate / seminal vesicles release additional secretion
    • - internal urethra sphincter contracts: urine is contained in the bladder
    • -bulbocavernosum muscle contracts and rhythmially compresses bulb and root of penis; semen is expelled
    • (ejactulation occurs)
  50. resolution
    (spinal cord (L1-L2) > efferent sympathetic signal )
    • -internal pudendal artery constricts; reduces blood flow into the penis
    • -trabecular muscles contracts; squeeze blood from erectile tissue
    • -penis becomes flaccid
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