Introduction to Linguistics G1

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Introduction to Linguistics G1
2012-02-04 12:41:01

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  1. articulatory phonetics
    studies sound production by the vocaltract —> the physiological mechanismsof speech production
  2. phone
    phonetic segment, individual speech sound; any sound used in human language
  3. phones or segments
    ...are composed of smaller subunits called feature; ex.: 'nasal'
  4. diacritic
    A mark added to a phonetic symbol to alter its value in some way (e.g., a circle under asymbol to indicate voicelessness; cf. German das Rad: [d] vs [d°]
  5. suprasegmental/prosodic properties
    Those properties of sounds that form part of their make-up no matter what their place or manner of articulation: pitch, loudness, length.
  6. voicelessness
    the vocal folds are pulled apart, air passes directly through the glottis—> no vibration (test: feel with your fingertips: fish, sink, tip)
  7. voicing
    the vocal folds are brought closer together; air passing between themcauses them to vibrate (test: feel with your fingertips: zip, mean, any vowel)
  8. whisper
    whispering is voiceless, but the vocal folds are adjusted so that the frontportions are pulled close together, while the back portions are apart(test: try to whisper zip)
  9. murmur
    produces voiced sounds, but the vocal folds are relaxed to produce asimultaneous whispery effect
  10. Labial
    • any sound made with closure or near closure of the lips
    • sounds involving both lips are termed bilabials
    • sounds involving the lower lip and the upper teeth are labiodentals
    • ex.: pie, bin, mad; fire,virgin —> [p], [b], [m], [f], [v]
  11. Dental
    • sounds produced with the tongue placed against or near the teeth
    • if the tongue is placed between the teeth, the sound is said to be interdental
    • ex.: this, thing
  12. Alveolar
    • within the oral cavity, a small ridge protrudes from just behind the upperfront teeth —> alveolar ridge
    • alveolar sounds: the tongue touches or is brought near this ridge
    • ex.: top, deer, soap, zip, lip, neck —> [t], [d], [s], [z], [l], [n]
  13. Palatoalveolar
    • just behind the alveolar ridge, the roof of the mouth rises sharply—> palato-alveolar (or alveo-palatal) area
    • sounds produced with the tongue on or near this area: alveo-palatalconsonants
    • ex.: show, measure, chip, judge —> [], [.], [t.], [d.]
  14. Palatal
    • highest part of the roof of the mouth: palate
    • sounds produced with the tongue on or near this area: palatals
    • ex.: yes —> [j]
  15. Velar
    the soft area towards the rear of the roof of the mouth —> velum

    • sounds produced with the tongue on or near this area: velars ex.: call, go, hang —> [k], [g], [ŋ]
    • the word-initial glide in wet ([w]) is a so-called labiovelar: the tongue is raised near the velum and the lips are rounded at the same time
  16. Uvular
    • uvula: the small fleshy flap of tissue that hangs down from the velum
    • sounds produced with the tongue on or near this area: uvulars
    • English has no uvulars, but the r-sound of standard European French is uvular
  17. Pharyngeal
    • —> pharynx: area of the throat between the uvula and the larynx
    • sounds made through modification of airflow in the region by retractingthe tongue or constricting the pharynx: pharyngeals
    • English has no pharyngeals, but, for instance, many dialects of Arabic.
  18. Glottal
    • sounds produced by using the vocal folds as the primary articulators:glottals
    • ex.: hug —> [h]
  19. Phonetics
    deals with the articulation and perception of speech sounds
  20. Phonology
    deals with the patterning of speech sounds
  21. Morphology
    deals with word formation
  22. Syntax
    deals with sentence formation
  23. Semantics
    deals with the meaning of words and sentences(independent of context)
  24. Word classes
    Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction (and), pronoun (her, she), preposition (at, with), article, interjection (Oh!)
  25. intransitive
    verb not in need of an object
  26. transitive
    verb with one object
  27. ditransitive
    verb with two objects
  28. The Indish Tradition
    • The first linguist known to us is Panini (5th/6th century B.C.): He wrote a detailed grammar of Sanskrit (more than 4000 rules), an ancient language of India.
    • Aim: - provide a detailed and exact grammatical description of religious texts (in particular ofthe Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism)—> the Hindu believed that the original pronunciation of Vedic Sanskrit had to beused and pronounced perfectly right in their rituals and prayers—> this led to the first "linguistic studies", because Sanskrit had already changedgreatly since the hymns of the Vedas had been written (approximately 1200-500B.C.) - conserve their language (norm: language of the highest caste): prescriptive approachto language
  29. Prescriptive Grammar
    Prescriptive grammars seek to prescribe one system in preferenceto another one. (For example, written, non-dialectal forms aregenerally preferred.)
  30. Descriptive Grammars
    By contrast, a descriptive grammar seeks to describe the humanlinguistic ability and knowledge neutrally and does not try toprescribe one system in preference to another.
  31. The Greeks
    • Philosophers like Plato (429-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Central Issues:
    • "Plato's problem": How can we know as much as we do in so little time?
    • Is language a convention, or is it based on external natural principles?
    • Etymology: What is the original meaning of a word? Is there a natural relationshipbetween a word and its meaning?
    • first grammatical classifications—> central lexical categories: nouns and verbs
    • 2nd century B.C.: eight different categories are distinguished (noun, verb, participle,determiner, pronoun, preposition, adverb, and conjunction)
  32. The Romans
    • adapt the Greek ideas (translation + adaption of their terminology and methods)—> many of the Latin terms are still used today
    • add a further category: adjectives
    • still: a prescriptive approach to language
  33. The Middle Ages
    • still very prescriptive
    • central language: Latin; because of its 'logical' structure it was proposed that the grammatical categories it involves must underly all languages—> idea of universality came up (which is still assumed today)
  34. Rationalism
    • cf., for example, René Descartes (1596-1650)—> everything is built up logically and systematically deductive approach: rule —> examples can be derived
    • inductive approach: examples —> underlying rule can be derived
    • prescriptive thinking plus 'national awakening' leads to the foundation of the following institutions: 1582: Accademia della Crusca (Italy)1635: Académie Française (France) (cf. also the "Duden" (1880), which regulated German orthography, or the foundationof the "Deutsche Sprachverein" (1885)) English writers speak up for a similar institution to regulate the English language and prevent it from "decay".Underlying idea: some varieties of language are better than others; language change is decay, therefore efforts are made to "save the language".
  35. Universality
    The underlying idea is that important grammatical principles and tendencies are shared by all natural languages; i.e., some grammatical categories and principles are universal.
  36. 18th/19th Century
    • Central Issues:
    • detailed scientific analyses of (aspects of) particular languages
    • the origin of language
    • language typology (—> classification of languages; language families)
    • comparative studies: what is the underlying relationship between certain languages?
    • —> 1786: Sir William Jones proposes that Greek and Latin have been derived from the same source as Sanskrit ("... and the old Persian might be added to the samefamily...").—> This common origin is (Proto-)Indo-European.
  37. Proto-Indo-European
  38. The Indo-European Languages
    • most important language family in Europe;
    • it is the largest language family as far asthe number of native speakers is concerned (approximately three billion); it covers several hundred languages
    • it originated in the South-Russian steppe; is spreading via the Danube (~ 3500 B.C.)
    • but: not all European languages are Indo-European languages! exceptions: for instance Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian (Uralic languages);Basque (language isolate —> has no known linguistic affiliation with anyother language)
  39. Still 18./19th century
    • Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835):distinguishes between language as ergon (= product) and energeia (= process, dynamic phenomenon); mainly interested in the latter; central ideas:
    • —> analyse language independent of its historical dimension—> towards a distinction between synchronic and diacronic studies
  40. Synchronic Studies
    Synchronic studies deal with the properties of a language at a given point in time.
  41. Diachronic studies
    Diachronic studies consider the history and development of a language
  42. ...18th/19th century
    August Wilhelm von Schlegel (1767-1845) and August Schleicher (1821-1868):propose that there are basically three classes of languages as regards morphological typology: analytic, synthetic, and agglutinating languages(—> however, this is just a tendency; no language is completely analytic etc.)
  43. analytic (=isolating) type:
    separate words for grammatical and lexical functions;

    • ex.: English: I will eat
    • most extreme case: languages like Chinese or Vietnamese in which one wordcorresponds to one morpheme (cf. Morphology I)
  44. synthetic type:
    • involves a rich inflectional system;
    • inflectional endings are attached to the wordstem;
    • usually, in a given ending several pieces of grammatical information are encoded
    • (cf. -um in Latin bellum: information concerning case, number, gender) ex.: Greek, Latin, Sanskrit; Latin: bell-um, bell-i, ...;but cf. also English: he eat-s
  45. agglutinating type
    • can be considered a subclass of the synthetic type; in such languages, each affixis clearly identifiable and typically represents a single grammatical category ormeaning
    • (i.e., each morpheme has a single clearly identifiable function (cf.Morphology I)); the parts are "glued" together
    • ex.: Turkish: köy 'village'köy-ler 'villages' (plural)köy-ler-in 'of the villages' (plural, genitive)
  46. 18./19th century
    • Jacob Grimm (1785-1863):one of the leading figures in Germany at that time;
    • "Grimm's Law": following some observations by the Danish linguist R. K. Rask,Grimm extended and systemized a catalogue of regular sound changes that distinguish Germanic from other Indo-European languages;
    • ex.: /p/ in IE correlates with /f/ in Germanic:Latin: pes.versus German: Fuß French: pied English: foot Italian: piede
    • Latin: pater versus German: Vater French: père English: father Italian: padre
  47. The Neogrammarians
    • The Neogrammarians ("Junggrammatiker"):group of scholars including K. Brugmann, H. Osthoff, H. Paul, K. Verner workingmostly on Indo-European languages in and around Leipzig in the last quarter of the19th century Central Issues:
    • scientific study of language
    • primacy of diachrony
    • formulate principles and methodological assumptions about language change
    • credo: "There must ... exist a rule for irregularities; the task is to find this rule"
  48. 20th Century, Part I
    • Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913): the "father of Structuralism"Swiss linguist; trained in Neogrammarian circles in Leipzig; Central Ideas:
    • language = a system of signs; it has its own rules and architecture and is independentof external factors like society, history etc.
    • introduces the following distinctions:
    • (i) synchrony vs diachrony
    • (ii) syntagmatic vs paradigmatic relations
    • (iii) langue vs parole
  49. syntagmatic vs paradigmatic relations (de Saussure)
    • syntagmatic: 'which signs can cooccur?'
    • ex.: the dog is barking —> the + dog + is + barking
    • paradigmatic: 'which sign can occur instead of another one?'
    • ex.: the boy is laughing —> the girl is laughing —> John is laughing —>John was laughing ...
  50. langue vs parole
    • langue: abstract system of signs and rules;
    • idealization parole: realization of langue in a concrete situation;
    • (langage: subsumes langue + parole; human ability to speak and understand language)
  51. 20th Century, Part II
    Noam Chomsky (born in 1928): leading figure of Generative Grammar
  52. Grammar (Chomsky)
    Mental system that allows human beings to form and interpret the words and sentences of their language; subconscious linguistic system.
  53. Generative Grammar
    • (i) the class of well-formed sentences in any language is infinite;
    • (ii) however, when we learn a language, the input we get is obviously finite;
    • (iii) hence, there must be a finite set of underlying principles that allows us to generate as many grammatical sentences as we like;
    • (iv) generative grammar tries to find out what these rules are.
    • Central Ideas:
    • Universal Grammar (UG)
    • Innateness Hypothesis
    • descriptive approach to language: ALL GRAMMARS ARE EQUAL(i.e., all varieties of a language are absolutely equal as instruments of communicationand thought)
    • distinction between competence and performance—> aim of the generativists: describe competence
    • aim: understand the nature of grammatical systems; (each variety of a language has itsown grammar)
  54. Universal Grammar
    • Assumption: All human languages have a common core, a common set of underlying principles. This basic ability that underlies the linguistic knowledge of all humans in their native language (whatever this language might be) is called Universal Grammar.
    • linguistic universals:structural characteristics that occur across all languages of the world
  55. Innateness Hypothesis
    These language universals are innate, i.e., when a child is born he/she is biologicallyequipped with a knowledge of certain universal elements of language structure(—> genetically encoded language faculty).
  56. Competence vs Performance
    Linguistic competence is a native speaker's ability to produce and understand an unlimited number of utterances, including new ones; it is the native speaker'sknowledge of his/her language. This knowledge is tacit knowledge, i.e., it is acquired without the help of instruction when one is still a child, and it remains largely subconscious throughout life. (In everyday language use, we routinely make decisions about the acceptability of forms based on this subconscious knowledge.) Performance corresponds to the speaker's use of this knowledge in actual speech production and comprehension. Therefore it also includes phonetic, syntactic and other speech errors.
    • nasal cavity: third filter
    • oral cavity: second filter
    • Pharynx: first filter
    • Larynx: the sound source (vocal folds are within the larynx)
    • Lungs: Set air in motion
  57. --
  58. the vocal tract
  59. Manners of Articulation
    • lips, tongue, velum, glottis etc. can be positioned in different ways to produce differentsound types;
    • various configurations —> manners of articulation
  60. Nasals
    • In contrast to oral phones, where the velum is raised, air also passes through the nasal passages (—> velum is lowered).
    • English nasals are generally voiced.ex.: sum, sun, sung —> bilabial: [m]; alveolar: [n]; velar: [ŋ];
  61. Stops
    • Stops (or plosives) are made with a complete and momentary closure of airflow through the vocal tract.
    • ex.: pie, ban, tie, dot, cut, go
    • —> bilabial: [p], [b]; alveolar: [t], [d]; velar: [k], [g]; glottal: [?]
  62. Fricatives
    • Consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth (belong tothe class of sounds called continuants);
    • accompanied by a continuous audible noise: air passes through a very narrow opening.
    • ex.: fat, virgin, thin, those, sing, zip, ship, measure, hat
    • —> labiodental: [f], [v]; interdental: [.], [.]; alveolar: [s], [z]; palato-alveolar: [∫], []; glottal: [h]
  63. Affricates
    • 'stop + fricative'
    • usually: when a stop articulation is released, the tongue moves rapidly away from the place of articulation
    • some sounds show a slow release of the closure after stop articulation
    • ex.: church, jump—> palato-alveolar: [t∫], [d.]
  64. Liquids
    • —> comprise the numerous variants of l- and r-sounds
    • (i) Laterals: Air escapes through the mouth along the lowered side of the tongue;generally voiced.
    • ex.: please, clear —> alveolar: [l]
    • (ii) r-sounds: -in RP, r is a post-alveolar approximant: a consonant with a manner of articulation that involves bringing the articulators quite close together while at the same time leaving a sufficiently large gap between them for air to escape without causing audible turbulence
    • typically, in words like read, the tip of the tongue is brought close to thearea just past the alveolar ridge without making firm contact with the roof of the mouth
    • —> (post-)alveolar: [.]; but for the sake of convenience, the symbol [r] is often used
    • Rhotacization: r-colouring of a vowel preceding an <r>; but note that in most varieties of BE the [r] following a vowel was lost, leaving behind a lengthenedvowel (or, word-finally, schwa):
    • ex.: chair – [t.e.]; poor – [p..]; car – [k..]; bird – [b..d] rhotic accents: General American, Scottish English, ...non-rhotic: RP, ...
  65. Glides
    • very rapidly articulated non-syllabic segment;
    • ex.: yes, wet —> palatal: [j]; articulation similar to that of [i:]labiovelar: [w]; rounded lips, articulation similar to that of [u:]
  66. English Consonants and Glides
  67. Length
    indicated in phonetic transcription by the use of a colon,e.g., [si:] for <see>;
  68. Stress
    • Combined effects of pitch, loudness, and length; syllabic segments perceived as relatively more prominent are stressed. primary stress: [´ ]secondary stress: [ `]
    • ex.: differing stress placement in English a present – to present: [pr..z.nt] – [pr.z..nt] telegraphic [t...l..ræf..k]. • Aspiration after certain voiceless stops: voicelessness continues during initial phase of vowel articulation; delay in voicing—> impression of an extra release of air; transcription: e.g., [t(with an uplifted h)]
  69. Co-articulation
    • Accomodation between overlapping articulatory gestures used in the production of adjacent segments;
    • ex.: [k] in key vs caught; (difference can be expressed with diacritics)—> adjustments in anticipation of the tongue position that will be needed for the vowel in question (key: [k.]; signals: tongue towards the palate)
  70. Assimilation
    • Influence of one segment on another, resulting in a sound becoming more like a nearby sound in terms of one or more of its phonetic characteristics;
    • e.g., nasalization of vowels before nasal consonants, voicing/devoicing,assimilation for place of articulation. Assimilation may even cross the boundaries between words.
    • ex.: incomplete; in code [n] —> [ŋ] German: loben ('to praise') —> careful speech: [lo.b.n] informal speech: []
  71. Dissimilation
    • Two sounds become less alike in articulatory or acoustic terms; rarer process than assimilation.—> easier to articulate and distinguish
    • ex.: fifths: [f.f.s] —> [f.fts] —> the sequence of three fricatives is broken up with a stop
  72. Deletion
    • Removal of a segment from certain phonetic contexts; occurs in everyday rapid speech in many languages
    • ex.: suppose: [s(e upside down)p..z] —> [sp..z]
  73. Epenthesis
    • Insertion of a syllabic or non-syllabic segment within an existing string of segments, e.g., in careful speech
    • ex.: something: []
  74. Vowel reduction
    Articulation of unstressed vowels is moved to a more central position; typical outcome: [(e upside down)]
  75. Phonetic Processes
    Speech production is not a series of isolated events. As a consequence, it often results in the articulation of one sound affecting that of another (—> easier to articulate; easier to perceive).
  76. Phonology
    • deals with the sequential and phonetically conditioned patterning of sounds in human language;
    • aim: discover the general principles that underlie the patterning of sounds
  77. syllable
    • basic unit into which segments are grouped; unit of linguistic structure that constists of a syllabic element (normally a vowel) and any segments that are associated with it; syllables are represented with the Greek letter o;
    • ex.: segment: seg + ment —> two syllables
  78. features
    • smallest building blocks of phonological structure; phon. features correspond to articulatory or acoustic categories such as [voice]
    • Each feature is rooted in an independently controllable aspect of speechproduction. The representation of a segment by features captures thiscoordinated activity by placing them in an array called matrix. Features are represented in binary terms: [+x] means that feature x is present, [–x] means that it is absent.
    • ex.: [m] = [– syllabic, + nasal, + voice, + labial, – round, ...]
  79. wd --> syllable (o) ---> segments ---> features
    features, segments, and syllables are organized into hierarchical levels
  80. minimal pair
    two forms with distinct meanings that differ by only one segment found in the same position, i.e., in the same environment, in each form
  81. environment
    phonetic context in which a sound occurs
  82. Contrasts are language-specific
    sounds that are distinctive in one language will not necessarily be distinctive in another
  83. phoneme
    • Predictable sounds that are phonetically similar and that do not contrast with each other are grouped together into a phonological unit called a phoneme (—> smallest unit of language that carries distinction). These variants, which are referred to as allophones, are in complementary distribution.
    • phonetic transcription: square brackets;
    • phonemic transcription: slashes
    • ex.: English: /l/ —> {[l], [l.]
  84. allophones vs. phonemes
    Generally, spelling systems ignore phonetic variation that is non-distinctive; but what we pronounce are allophones, not phonemes (= abstract units).
  85. Defining the syllable – subsyllabic units
    • (i) nucleus (N): the syllable's only obligatory member; usually a vowel
    • (ii) coda (C): consists of those elements that follow the nucleus in the same syllable
    • (iii) rhyme (R): nucleus + coda
    • (iv) onset (O): consists of those elements that precede the rhyme in the same syllable
  86. Phonotactics
    the set of constraints on how sequences of segments pattern; —> forms part of the speaker's implicit knowledge
  87. Accidental gap
    • gap in the inventory of possible English words that does not violate any phonotactic constraints of English; might be filled:
    • ex.: flube, sprake
  88. Systematic gap
    • gap in the occurring syllable structures of a language that results from the exclusion of certain sequences:
    • ex.: English words beginning with /bz/, /fp/,/ps/, /pt/
  89. Universal syllabication procedure
    • Step a: The syllabic nucleus is constructed first. Each vowel segment in a word makes upa syllabic nucleus.
    • Step b: Onsets before codas! Onset: the longest sequence of consonants to the left of each nucleus that does notviolate the phonotactic constraints of the language in question
    • Step c: Any remaining consonants to the right of each nucleus form the coda.
    • Step d: Syllables that make up a single form branch out from the representation Wd.
  90. Word —> Morphemes
    smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function
  91. Simple words
    words that consist of a single morpheme, e.g., train
  92. Complex words
    words that consist of more than one morpheme, e.g., hunt-er-s
  93. Free morpheme
    a morpheme that can be a word by itself, e.g., hunt
  94. Bound morpheme
    a morpheme that must be attached to another element,e.g., plural -s
  95. Allomorphs
    various forms of a morpheme to express the same concept; e.g., morphemes used to express indefiniteness in English: a, an.
  96. Root morpheme
    carries the major component of the word's meaning; belongs to a lexical category (N, V, A, or P)
  97. Affixes
    • do not belong to a lexical category and are always bound morphemes
    • ex.: teach+er —> teach: root morpheme, based on the verb teach —> -er: affix that combines with the root and gives a noun with themeaning 'one who teaches'
  98. Base
    —> the form to which an affix is added In many cases, the base is also the root (as in teach-er); in other cases, however, an affix can be added to a unit larger than a word's root; e.g.: black(A) --> root+base for -en; blacken (V) -->base for -ed; blackened (V)
  99. Bound roots
    root morphemes that cannot be used as words (and therefore do not belong toa conventional lexical category); abbreviation in our trees: "B" —> sometimes: historical explanation (kempt = 'combed' in former times)
  100. Prefix
    affix attached to the front of its base, e.g., re-do;
  101. Suffix
    affix attached to the end of its base, e.g., hunt-er;
  102. Infix
    affix that occurs within the base, e.g., Arabic: katab – kutib – aktub – uktb
  103. Cliticization
    attachment of clitics to neighbouring words
  104. Clitic
    word that cannot stand alone as independent form, in general for phonological reasons, and is therefore attached to another word in the sentence
  105. Enclitic
    clitic that attaches to the end of a preceding word
  106. Proclitic
    clitic that attaches to the beginning of a following word
  107. Affix vs clitic
    Both elements cannot stand alone and are attached to a base; but a suffix gets fully integrated phonologically, semantically, and syntactically with the base to which it is attached and cannot be torn away from it and attached to another constituent of the sentence (i.e.several presidents); a clitic has a much looser association with its host —> the phonological host may be different from the syntactic and semantic host. (i.e. the king's)
  108. Suppletion
    replacement of a root morpheme by a phonologically unrelated form in order to indicate a grammatical contrast; e.g., go/went, be/was;
  109. Internal change
    • process that substitutes one non-morphemic segment for another;
    • ex.: sink – sank; drive – drove, foot – feet —> form their past tense/plural by changing the vowel
  110. ablaut
    term used for vowel alternations that mark grammatical contrasts in this way
  111. umlaut
    term used if this effect results from the fronting of a vowel under the influence of a front vowel in the following syllable: ex.: foot – feet; Hand – Hände; full – fill
  112. Stress and tone placement
    change in the placement of stress or tone to reflect a change in category; e.g., presént (V) – présent (N)
  113. Reduplication
    • (part of) the base is duplicated to mark a grammatical or semantic contrast;
    • A: Full reduplication: repetition of the entire word
    • B: Partial reduplication: copies only parts of the word
    • ex.: A: Turkish: /t.abuk/ 'quickly' /t.abuk t.abuk/ 'very quickly' Indonesian: /ora./ 'man' /ora. ora./ 'all sorts of men'
  114. Compounding
    • combination of lexical categories to create a larger word;
    • ex.: street light (N + N), swear word (V + N), happy hour (A + N), outhouse (P + N), ...
  115. Derivation
    • forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base through the addition of an affix;
    • ex.: V + -er to form a noun with the meaning 'one who does X'; teach-er, writ-er, sing-er, ...
  116. "very"-test for A-N compounds
    The A in a compound cannot be preceded by a word such as very.ex.: *a very [wet suit] vs a very [wet] [suit].
  117. Endocentric compounds
    one component of the compound (typically the righmost one)identifies the general class to which the meaning of the entireword belongs: ex.: dog food —> a type of food; blackbird —> a type of bird
  118. Exocentric compounds
    • rarer; the meaning of the compound does not follow from the meanings of its parts in the same way:
    • ex.: greenbottle —> not a type of bottle but a fly of the genuslucilia redneck —> not a type of neck but an ultra conservative,white working-class person
  119. Conversion
    • assigns an already existing word to a new syntactic category; it is sometimes also called zero derivation.
    • ex.: N —> V: to butter the bread
    • V —> N: (often + stress shift, which places stress on the first syllable)a building pérmit; a long walk
    • A —> V: to dirty a shirt, to open a door
  120. Clipping
    • shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables;
    • ex.: Rob(ert), prof(essor), zoo(logical garden), fax (from facsimile).
  121. Blends
    • Words that are created from non-morphemic parts of two already existing items; usually formed from the first part of one word and the final part of asecond one.
    • ex.: breakfast + lunch = brunch; smoke + fog = smog; binary + digit = bit
  122. Backformation
    • creates a new word by removing a real or supposed affix from another word in the language; (—> the new form is coined by analogy with other pairs of words which are related by aproductive morphological process; the new form is the result of reversing this process)
    • ex.: housekeep from housekeeper; edit from editor; laze from lazy
    • Note: backformation often involves an incorrect assumption about a word's form:
    • ex.: cherry —> when French cerise ('cherry') was borrowed into Middle English, the final [z]was reinterpreted as a plural marker and a new singular form was produced byremoving [z]
  123. Acronyms
    • formation of words by taking the initial letters of some or all words in aphrase or title and reading them as a word;
    • ex.: NATO: 'North Atlantic Treaty Organization'yuppie: 'young urban professional'laser: 'light amplification by simulated emission of radiation'radar: 'radio detecting and ranging'Gestapo: 'Geheime Staatspolizei'
  124. Onomatopoeia
    • formation of words whose sound represents an aspect of the thing that they name —> since they are not exact phonetic copies of noises, their form can differ from language to language, but they are very similar:
    • ex.: 'sound of a cock': English: cock-a-doodle-doo German: kikeriki Japanese: kokekokko Tagalog: kuk-kukauk —> moreover, not all onomatopoeic words have equivalents in other languages:
    • ex.: Slavey (Athapaskan language):'sound of a bear walking unseen not far from camp': sah sah sah
  125. Word manufacture/coinage
    • —> especially common where industry requires a new and attractive name for a product (intentional invention);
    • ex.: Kodak, Teflon
  126. Creation of new words from names
    • —> brand names (adapted as generic terms):
    • ex.: kleenex, Tempo
    • —> scientific terms (derived from the names of scientists):
    • ex.: watt, fahrenheit
    • —> place names:
    • ex.: canary: Canary Islandsjeans: Genoa (for a twilled cotton cloth associated with Genoa)
    • peach: Persia (English peach is a loan from French pêche, which derives from Latinmalum perscium = 'Persian apple'; cf. also the German cognate Pfirsich)sherry: Jerez (a place in Spain associated with this fortified Spanish wine)
  127. Inflection
    modification of a word's form through affixation/internal change/suppletion/ indicate the grammatical subclass (e.g., the plural subclass, the past andnon-past subclasses) to which it belongs
  128. Stem
    base to which an inflectional affix is added
  129. plural inflection
    foot+ball —> football (compounding) —> + -s —> footballs
  130. tense inflection
    active+ate —> activate (derivation) —> + -ed —> activated
  131. (i) Category change
    • Inflection does not change the grammatical category or the type of meaning found in the word to which it applies; derivational affixes typically do (they create a 'new word').
    • ex.: book – books: N modern – modernize: A (property) vs V (action)
  132. (ii) Order:
    • A derivational affix must combine with the base before the inflectional affix does; i.e.,derivational affixes are closer to the root.
    • ex.: [[neighbour-hood]-s] vs *[[neighbour-s]-hood]
  133. (iii) Productivity
    • Inflectional affixes typically have relatively few exceptions, derivational affixes characteristically apply to restricted classes of bases.
    • ex.: modern-ize vs *new-ize, but: typical plural marker: -s
  134. English inflectional affixes
    • English is not a highly inflected language (only 7 inflectional affixes):
    • nouns: plural -s
    • verbs: 3rd person sg non-past -s progressive -ing past tense -ed past participle -en/-ed
    • adjectives: comparative -er superlative -est
  135. Case
    • category that encodes information about an element's grammatical role(subject, direct object, possessor etc.)
    • ex.: Latin: every noun has 6 cases; each of these cases is marked with aninflectional ending (= case suffix) on the noun; nominative: dominus genitive: domini dative: domino accusative: dominum ablative: domino typical function: subject possessorindirect objectdirect objectassociated with various Ps vocative: domine form of address
    • Note: Finnish has fifteen distinct case categories, English 4, German 4
  136. Ergative case marking
    groups together the subject of an intransitive verb and the direct object of a transitive verb(ABS) and distinguishes them from the subject of transitive verbs (ERG); less common pattern
  137. Person and number agreement
    • Person: typical distinction between first person, second person, third person
    • —> in many languages, the verb is marked for both the person and number of the subject:
    • subject-verb agreement
  138. Tense
    • category that encodes the time of an event with reference to the moment of speaking;
    • ex.: English:past (inflectional suffix -ed in regular verbs) vs non-past (unmarked)
  139. Syntax
    • The system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation in human language;
    • aim: establish a set of abstract rules which derive all grammaticalsentences and rule out the ungrammatical ones.
  140. What we need in order to generate sentences
    • 1. mental lexicon: list of (learned) words (= finite set)
    • 2. syntactic rules: —> combine (some of) these lexical entries and form constituents and sentences (= finite set; only a small number of rules)
  141. generative competence
    On the basis of a finite inventory of words (= lexicon) and a finite set of rules, speakers can generate an infinite number of sentences.
  142. (i) Lexical Categories: (—> open class)
    noun (N) (like Harry, boy, bravery, ...)verb (V) (like arrive, discuss, melt, ...)preposition (P) (like to, in, by, ...)adjective (A) (like good, tall, intelligent, ...)adverb (Adv) (like slowly, now, silently, ...)
  143. (ii) Functional Categories: (—> closed class)
    • (—> their meaning is harder to define; however, words of the same group havesimilar functions)
    • determiner (D/Det) (like the, a, this, ...)
    • degree word (Deg) (like too, very, more, quite, ...) [can also be classified as adverbs]
    • auxiliary (Aux) (like will, can, must, ...)
    • conjunction (Con) (like and, or, but)
    • complementizer (C/COMP) (like that ('dass'), whether, if, ...) (cf. also Syntax II)
    • particles (as in particle verbs like speak up etc.; infinitival to)
  144. Note: Be careful – some items look the same but are words of different categorial status;
    ex.: near —> lexical entries: near1, near2, near3
  145. Three criteria to determine a word’s category:
    • 1. Meaning
    • 2. Inflection
    • 3. Distribution
  146. 1. Meaning:
    • nouns typically name entities such as individuals (Harry) and objects (book)
    • verbs typically designate actions (run), sensations (feel), and states (remain)
    • adjectives typically designate a property or attribute of the entities denoted by nouns(a tall building)
    • Note that syntactically pronouns are also analysed as determiners; cf. the similar distribution as in:we students vs the students. (If you classify categories as in assignment 1, you might still use the term pronoun.)
    • adverbs typically designate a property or attribute of the actions, sensations, and states designated by verbs (leave quickly)
    • prepositions often refer to location or time:—> spatial/temporal relation (in Rome, for hours)
    • Note: Unfortunately, a word's category membership does not always bear such a straight forward relationship to its meaning; cf., for example, abstract nouns such as truth; and even words with very similar meanings can belong to different categories (cf. like (V) vs fond (A)).
  147. 2. Inflection
    • —> compatibility with various types of inflection: lexical categories and their inflectional affixes:
    • N plural -s books, chairs, ...
    • V past tense -ed hunted, watched, -ing hunting, watching, ...
    • A comparative -er taller, faster, ...superlative -est tallest, fastest, ...
    • Note: Inflection does not always provide the information needed to determine a word's syntactic category either; cf. *intelligenter, *knowledges, *foots, ...
  148. 3. Distribution:
    • —> with which types of elements (especially functional categories) can a word cooccur?
    • nouns can typically occur with determiners (the book) and can be preceded by no (no books)
    • verbs can typically occur with auxiliaries (can go)
    • adjectives can typically occur with degree words (too big) and can occur in the context 'subject + form of be + A' (predicative use of As; in contrast to the attributive use of As,where they premodify a noun); ex.: they are (too) big (vs big animal)
    • prepositions can often be intensified by right or straight (right up the tree; straight into the room)
  149. Tests for Phrase Structure:
    Constituency Tests
    • Aim: syntactic decomposition of a sentence step by step We have seen that the words that make up a sentence form intermediate structural unitscalled phrases. But how can we determine which words should be grouped together intophrases?
    • elements that form syntactic units in a sentence = constituents
    • Constituency tests help to determine the constituents of a sentence.
    • Constituents – examples: In (22):
    • smallest constituents: the terminal nodes, here: D, N and V
    • larger constituents: every single phrase, here: the complete NP (= with all thematerial contained inside), the complete VP, and S itself(= the whole sentence as such)
    • no constituents: for example: D plus V; N plus V; S plus VP (without NP)(these parts are not directly connected with each other excluding all the other parts)
  150. The Substitution (Replacement) Test
    • Can the elements in question be replaced with a single element or do so? If this is the case, they form a constituent.
    • pronouns can typically be substituted for NPs
    • there can typically be substituted for (locational) PPs
    • do so can typically be substituted for VPs (24)
    • a. [a The books about syntax] are really fascinating.They are really fascinating. —> a is a constituent; a = NP
    • b. They stopped [a at the corner].They stopped there. —> a is a constituent; a = PP
    • c. The llama [a spat] again.The llama did so again. —> a is a constituent; a = VP
    • d. Hint concerning (23):The scientist will [a discover the answer].The scientist will do so. —> a is a constituent; a = VP but, for example:
    • e. *[a The books about] syntax are really fascinating.They syntax are really fascinating. —> a is no constituent
  151. The Movement Test
    • Can the elements in question be moved as a single unit to a different position withinthe sentence? If this is the case, they form a constituent. (There are a number of different options concerning the quesion of where and how a phrase can be moved.)
    • (25) Five old fish saw three young crabs.
    • a. Fronting:[a Three young crabs], they saw.
    • b. Passivization: [a-1 Three young crabs] were seen by [a-2 five old fish].
    • c. Clefting:It was [a three young crabs] that the five old fish saw.
    • d. Clefting:It was [a five old fish] that saw the three young crabs.
    • e. Pseudo-clefting:What the five old fish saw was [a three young crabs]. —> a is a constituent
    • f. Hint concerning (23):The scientist will [a discover the answer].What the scientist will do is [a discover the answer]. —> a is a constituent but, for example:
    • g. *[a Three young], they saw crabs. —> a is no constituent
  152. Question Formation
    • Can we ask for the elements in question? If this is the case, they form a constituent.
    • (26) Sally saw fifty-seven snails who met at midnight in the disco.
    • a. When did they meet? – [a At midnight].
    • b. Where did they meet? – [a In the disco].
    • c. What did Sally see? – [a Fifty-seven snails]/[a Fifty-seven snails who met at midnight in the disco]
    • d. Who saw them? – [a Sally]. —> a is a constituent
    • e. Hint concerning (23):The scientist will [a discover the answer].What will the scientist do? – [a Discover the answer]. —> a is a constituent but, for example:
    • f. *Where/what did they meet the? – [a In disco]. —> a is no constituent
  153. The Coordination Test
    • Can the elements in question be joined together to another group of words by a conjunction such as and, or, or but? If this is the case, they form a constituent.
    • (27) The biologist likes to read books about snails.
    • a. [a The biologist] and [NP Jim] like to read books about snails.
    • b. The biologist likes to read [NP poetry] and [a books about snails]. —> a is a constituent; a = NP
    • c. Hint concerning (23):The scientist will [a discover the answer] and [VP disappear]. —> a is a constituent; a = VP but, for example:
    • d. *The children [sweep the] and [polish the] floor. —> a is no constituent
  154. Deletion
    • Can the elements in question be deleted? If this is the case, they form a constituent.
    • (28) Sally saw fifty-seven snails who met at midnight in the disco.
    • a. Sally saw fifty-seven snails who met at midnight.—> [in the disco] is a constituent
    • b. Sally saw fifty-seven snails who met in the disco.—> [at midnight] is a constituent
    • c. Sally saw fifty-seven snails.—> [who met at midnight in the disco] is a constituent but, for example:
    • d. *Sally saw fifty-seven snails who met at midnight the.—> [in disco] is no constituent
  155. Syntactic categories
    Words can be grouped together into a relatively small number of classes, called syntacticcategories —> reflect the type of meaning the words express, the type of affixes they take,and the type of structure in which they occur.

    • (i) Lexical Categories: (—> open class)
    • noun (N) (like Harry, boy, bravery, ...)
    • verb (V) (like arrive, discuss, melt, ...)
    • preposition (P) (like to, in, by, ...)
    • adjective (A) (like good, tall, intelligent, ...)
    • adverb (Adv) (like slowly, now, silently, ...)

    • (ii) Functional Categories: (—> closed class) (—> their meaning is harder to define; however, words of the same group havesimilar functions)
    • determiner (D/Det) (like the, a, this, ...)
    • degree word (Deg) (like too, very, more, quite, ...) [can also be classified as adverbs]
    • auxiliary (Aux) (like will, can, must, ...)
    • conjunction (Con) (like and, or, but)
    • complementizer (C/COMP) (like that ('dass'), whether, if, ...)
    • particles (as in particle verbs like speak up etc.; infinitival to)
  156. X'-Theory
    • a. Every phrase has a head (notation: X or X°).
    • b. The head X projects the intermediate projection X', which contains X and optionally another phrase ZP, the so-called complement of X; the position ZP occupies is called complement position.
    • c. The linear order of heads and their complements depends on the category of X and the language under consideration. Depending on the linear ordering, XP is head-initial (headprecedes complement;) or head-final (complement precedes head;).
    • d. Above X', X projects the maximal projection XP. Apart from X', XP can contain another phrase YP, the so-called specifier of X; the position YP occupies is called specifier position (notation: SpecX or alternatively SpecXP).
    • e. X is a variable that can be filled with any lexical or functional head.
    • f. Phrase markers are (at most) binary branching. (The specifier and complement positions are not always filled.)
  157. Crucial Concepts of Phrase Structure
    • Let a, ß and . be nodes in a tree diagram.
    • a. If there is a continuous set of branches going down the tree from a higher category a to a lower category ß, then a dominates ß.
    • b. a immediately dominates ß iff (= "if and only if")
    • (i) a dominates ß and
    • (ii) there is no γ that dominates ß and is dominated by a (i.e., no γ intervenes on the branch connecting a and ß).
    • c. a is a root node if it is not dominated by any other node.—> highest node in a tree (. root in morphology!)
    • d. a c-commands ß iff
    • (i) a does not dominate ß and
    • (ii) every category dominating a dominates ß.
    • e. a and ß are sisters iff they are immediately dominated by the same node. (The latter iscalled their mother node.)
  158. Arguments vs. Adjunction
    • Arguments = obligatory constituents in a sentence which are grouped around the predicate: subjects and subcategorized XPs syntactic positions for arguments: specifier and complement position
    • VERSUS
    • Adjuncts = optional XPs in a sentence (—> for instance, many adverbials); they generally provide additional information with respect to time, location etc.
  159. Terminology concerning movement
    • (i) The starting position of an element a is called its base position; a is base-generated in this position.
    • (ii) The position a moves to is called its target position.
    • (iii) In its base position, a leaves a trace; notation: t. a is coindexed with its trace. In a given syntactic structure we can therefore see what kind of movement transformations have taken place: we see which element has moved from which base position to which target position.
    • (iv) Hence, we do not need two different trees to represent D- and S-Structure; because ofthe traces both D- and S-Structure are visible in one tree diagram.
    • (v) Although traces are phonetically empty, they are syntactic elements which mark earlier positions of moved elements in a tree.

    • Consequence: (i) they cannot be heard;
    • (ii) the position a trace occupies is blocked:—> nothing else can be located in or be moved to this position.
  160. Constraints on movement
    • (i) Movement is always "upwards" in a tree, never downwards.
    • (ii) Moved constituents must c-command their trace; i.e., the target position must c-command the base position.
    • (iii) A constituent can only be moved to an empty position.
    • (iv) The target position must be of the "same type" as the base position, i.e., heads can only move to head positions; phrases cannot move to head positions, they target specifier or adjoined positions. (Note that higher complement positions cannot serve as target positions because they are never empty. Note moreover that depending on the type of construction there are further restrictions on the target positions.)
    • (v) There are limits on how far constituents can be moved and structural configurationsout of which movement is not possible.
  161. Semantic relations among words
    • synonymy
    • antonymy
    • hyponymy
    • lexical ambiguity (Polysemy, Homosymy)
    • Paraphrases
    • Entailment
    • Contradiction
  162. Synonymy
    • words that have the same meaning in some or all contexts
    • (—> complete synonymy: relatively rare);
    • ex.: begin – start, youth – adolescent
  163. Antonymy
    • words that are opposites with respect to some component of their meaning
    • ex.: boy – girl, come – go
  164. Hyponymy
    • relation between words such that one word denotes a subclass of the entities denoted by the other word
    • ex.: flower – rose flower: hyperonym (B); rose: hyponym (A)
  165. Lexical ambiguity
    • —> a single form has two or more meanings—> usually, the context makes the intended meaning clear(disambiguates)
    • (i) Polysemy: occurs where a word has two or more related meanings;
    • ex.: bright (shining – intelligent)surf (on the ocean – on the Web)
    • (ii) Homonymy: occurs where a single form has two or more entirely distinct meanings;
    • ex.: bat (animal – equipment used in cricket, baseball etc.) bank (financial institution – land along the side of a river)
    • —> in the latter case, it is assumed that there are two (or more) separate words with the same pronunciation rather than a single word with different meanings
  166. Three different forms of Homonymy
    • (i) homonymy: same pronunciation + spelling, different meaning
    • (ii) homophony: same pronunciation, different meaning + spelling(threw – through)
    • (iii) homography: same spelling, different meaning (pronunciation mightbe the same or differ) (record (n) – record (v))
  167. Paraphrases
    sentences that have the same truth conditions (= conditions that have to obtain in a specific situation or state of the world for a sentence to be true or false); i.e., if the sentences A and B are paraphrases, sentence A is true/false if and only if sentence B is true/false.
  168. Entailment
    • relation in which the truth of one sentence necessarily implies the truth of another sentence;
    • symmetric entailment: = paraphrases
    • asymmetric entailment: ex. a. The park wardens killed the tiger. --> b. The tiger is dead.
  169. Contradiction
    • (i) as a relation between two sentences: they cannot be true (false) at the same time;
    • (ii) as a property of one sentence: a sentence which is always false; a. Charles is a bachelor. b. Charles is married.
  170. Connotation
    • the set of associations that a word's use can evoke; e.g., connotation ofwinter for many people:
    • snow, cold, short evenings,...; but: . meaning
  171. Denotation
    • set of all entities to which a word or phrase refers (—> its potential referent(s) in the real world);
    • ex.: denotation of dog: the set of canines
  172. Referent
    the actual entity an expression refers to in the real world in a particular context
  173. Extension
    the set of entities that an expression picks out in the world (its reference potential)
  174. Intension
    • the inherent sense of an expression, the concept it evokes;
    • —> = 'meaning'
  175. Conjunctions
    • correspond to the meaning of 'and'; a compound linked by this operator is only true if both constituents of the conjunction are true.
    • example: a. Peter likes beer = p
    • b. Mary likes wine = q
    • c. Peter likes beer and Mary likes wine = p Λ q
    • c If a. is true and b. is true, then c. is true as well.
  176. Disjunctions (v)
    • correspond to the meaning of 'or'; a compound linked by this operator is true if one or both constituents of the disjunction are true (i.e., it is only false if both parts are false).
    • example: a. I'll call Mary = p
    • b. I'll call Betty = q
    • c. I'll call Mary or I'll call Betty = p v q
  177. Biconditional
    • Here, a compound sentence is only true if both parts have the same truth value; corresponds to equivalence.
    • example: a. Peter smokes = p
    • b. Betty drinks = q
    • c. Peter smokes if and only if Betty drinks = p <--> q
  178. Implication
    • Implications are only false if the first part is true and the second part is false; if the first partis false, they are generally true!
    • --> defined in this way on the basis of a logical derivation! (... tricky because it does not really correspond to our everyday if... then)
    • Ex. If Peter is in Paris, then Mary is in Rome.
  179. Thematic roles
    • AGENT performs the action expressed by the predicate(generally animate; intentional action)
    • THEME undergoes the action/change/event expressed by the predicate
    • EXPERIENCER experiences a perception, feeling or other state
    • INSTRUMENTAL an instrument by which the event comes about
    • LOCATION a location; the place where an action occurs GOAL goal of movement/action; its end point
    • SOURCE the starting point for a movement