biolab.txt

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itzlinds
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biolab.txt
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bio lab practicle
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bio lab practicle
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  1. the muscle that primarily responsibel for producing an action
    prime mover, or agonist
  2. a muslce that aids the action of the primer mover is called the:
    synergist
  3. a muscle that causes movement in opposition of the prime mover is the:
    anatagonist
  4. the place of a muscle attachment to the more stationary bone is called the:
    orgin
  5. the place of a muscle attachment to the bone at it moves is called:
    insertion
  6. List the action and locationof the fontalis:
    • elevate eyebrows
    • location: superfical, anterior
  7. List the action and location of the orbicularis oculi:
    • close the eyelid
    • location: superficial, anterior
  8. List the action of the orbicularis oris:
    action: close and protrude lips
  9. List the action of the buccinator:
    action: compress cheek
  10. List the orgin, insertion, and action of the temporalis:
    • orgin: temporal bone
    • insertion: coronoid process of mandible
    • action: elevate mandible
  11. List the orgin, insertion, and action of the masseter:
    • orgin: zyogomatic arch
    • insertion: angle of the ramus of mandible
    • action: elevate mandible
  12. List the location and action of the medial pterygoid:
    • location: deep, posterior
    • action:elevate mandible
  13. list the location and action of teh lateral pterygoid:
    • location: posterior, deep
    • action: depress mandible
  14. list the action of the digastric:
    action: depress mandible, elevate hyoid
  15. List the name of the hyoids in the suprahyoid group and list the action:
    • Suprahyoid: stylohyoid, mylohyoid, diagstric
    • action: elevate hyoid
  16. list the names of the hyoids in the infrahyoid group and the action:
    • Infrahyoid: omohyoid, sternohyoid, thyrohyoid
    • action: depress hyoid
    • location: deep
  17. List the orgin, insertion and action of the sternocleidomastiod:
    • orgin: sternum and clavicle
    • insertion: mastoid process of the temporal bone
    • action: together-flex the neck, alone, rotate the head to the opposite side
  18. List the action of the erector spine:
    action: together- extend the spine, alone- laterally flex the spine
  19. list the action of the external interocostals:
    action: elevate and protract the ribs
  20. List the action of the internal intercostals:
    action: depresss and retract the ribs
  21. list the action of the diaphram:
    action: prime mover of the inspiration
  22. list the action of the internal abdominal obliques:
    action: compress the abdominal viscera
  23. list the action of the internal abdominal obliques:
    action: compress the abdominal viscera
  24. list the action of the transverse abdominals:
    action: compress the abdominal viscera
  25. list the action of the rectus abdominis:
    action: flex trunk, compress abdominal viscera
  26. list the orgin, insertion, and action of the trapezius:
    • orgin: occipital bone and spines of C7- T3 vertebrae
    • insertion: clavicle; spine and acromion process of the scapula
    • action: elevate, retract, and laterally rotate the scapula
  27. list the orgin , insertion , and action of the rhomboideus major:
    • orgin: spines to T2-T5 vertebrae
    • insertion: medial scapula
    • action: retract scapula
  28. list the action and the location of the rhomboideus minor:
    • action: retract scapula
    • location: deep
  29. list the action and the location of the levator scapulae:
    • action: elevate the scpaula
    • location: deep
  30. list the action and the location of the serratus anterior:
    • action: protract and laterally rotate the scapula
    • location: deep
  31. List the action and location of the pectoralis minor:
    • action: protract and laterally rotate scapula
    • location: deep
  32. the minimum voltage necessary to generate an action potential in the muscle fiber and produce a contraction is called:
    threshold
  33. A quick cycle of contraction and relaxation is called:
    a muscle twitch
  34. The process of bringing more motor units into play is called:
    motor unit recruitment
  35. Each new twitch "rides piggy back" on the previous one and generates higher tension is called ______ because it results from two stimulus arriving close together:
    temporal summation
  36. a contraction without change in length is called:
    isometric
  37. Name the fxn of the supraspinatus:
    ABD the humerus
  38. List the muscles that latterally rotate the humerus:
    • infraspinatus
    • teres minor
  39. List the muscles that medially rotate the humerus:
    subscapularis
  40. List the origin, insertion and action of the deltoid:
    • origin: clavicle; spine and acromino process of scapula
    • insertion: deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
    • action: ABD, flex, extend and rotate the humerus
  41. List the muscles that extend the humerus:
    • deltoid
    • teres major
    • latissimus dorsi
  42. List the muscles that ADD the humerus:
    • latissimus dorsi
    • pectoralis major
    • coracobrachialis
  43. List the muscles that flex the humerus:
    • pectoralis major
    • corachobrachilalis
  44. List the origin, instertion, and the action of the coracobrachialis:
    • origin: coracoid process of the scapula
    • insertion: medial shaft of the humerus
    • action: ADD and flex the humerus
  45. List the muslces that make up the rotator cuff:
    • supraspinatus
    • infraspinatus
    • teres minor
    • supscapularis
  46. List the origin, insertion, and action of the biceps brachii:
    • origin: coracoid process of the scapula
    • instertion: radial tuberosity
    • action: flex and supinate the forearm
  47. list the muscles that flex the forearm:
    • biceps brachii
    • brachialis
    • brachioradialis
  48. list the muscles that extend the forearm:
    tricpes brachii
  49. List the origin, instertion, and action of the triceps brachii:
    • origin: posterior humerus
    • instertion: olecranon process of the ulna
    • action: extend the forearm
  50. List the muslces that flex the wrist:
    • flexor capir radialis
    • plamaris longus
    • flexor carpi ulnaris
    • flexor digitorum superficialis
  51. List the muscles that extend the wrist:
    • extensor carpi radiallis longus
    • extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • extensor digitorium
    • extensor digiti minimi
    • extensor carpi ulnaris
  52. List the muscles that ABD the thigh and leg:
    • tensor fasciae latea
    • gluteus maximus
    • gluetus medius
    • gluteus minimus
    • piriformis
    • gemellus superior
    • gemellus inferior
    • sartorius
  53. list the muscles that laterally rotate the thigh:
    • obturator internus
    • quadratus femoris
  54. List the muscles that flex the thigh:
    iliopsoas
  55. List the muscles that ADD the thigh:
    • pectineus
    • adductor longus
    • adductor magnus
    • gracilis
  56. List the origin, insertion, and action of the gluteus maximus:
    • origin: ilium, sacrum, and coccyx
    • insertion: IT band and proximal femur
    • action: ABD and extend thigh
  57. List the origin, insertion, and action of the gluteus medius:
    • origin: ilium
    • insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • action: ABD and medially rotate thigh
  58. Name and list the group of muscles that extend the knee:
    • Name: quadriceps
    • rectus femoris
    • vastus lateralis
    • vastus medialis
    • vastus intermedius
  59. List the origin, instertion and action of the vastus lateralis:
    • origin: greater trochanter of the femur
    • insertion: tibial tuberosity
    • action: extend knee
  60. List the origin, insertion, and action of the vastus medialis:
    • origin: medial femur
    • insertion: tibial tuberosity
    • action: extend knee
  61. Name and list the muscles that flex the knee and extend the thigh:
    • Name: hamstrings
    • biceps femoris
    • semitendinosus
    • semimembranosus
  62. List the origin, insertion, and action of the semitendinosus:
    • origin: ischial tuberosity
    • insertion: medial tibia
    • action: flex knee and extend thigh
  63. List the origin, insertion, and action of the semimembranosus:
    • origin: ischial tuberosity
    • insertion: medila condyle of tibia
    • action: flex knee and extend thigh
  64. List the muscles that DF the footL
    • tibal anterior
    • extensor digitorum longus
  65. List the muscles that PF the foot:
    • gastrocnemius
    • soleus
    • flexor digitorum longus
    • fibularis longus
    • fibularis brevis
  66. List the origin, insertion, and action of the gastrocnemius:
    • origin: femoral condyles
    • instertion: calcaneus
    • action: PF the food and flex the knee
  67. List the origin, insertion, and action of the soleus:
    • origin: fibular head and posterior tibia
    • insertion: calcaneus
    • action: PF the foot
  68. outline the anatomical and physiological divisions of the central nervous system:
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  69. outline the anatomical and physiological divisions of the peripheral nervous system:
    • Sensory (afferent) division
    • a. somatic sensory division
    • b. viceral sensory division

    • Motor (efferant) division
    • a. somatic motor divison
    • b. autonomic nervous system
    • 1. sympathetic
    • 2. parasympathetic
  70. _______ neurons have only a single process leading away from the soma and include _______ neurons going to the spinal cord.
    • unipolar
    • sensory
  71. _______ neurons hvae two process arising from the soma ( one axon and one dendrite) and inlcude ___________ neruons.
    • bipolar
    • special senses (olfactory, retinal cells, and inner ear cells)
  72. ______ neurons have many processes extending from the soma ( one axon and multiple dendrites), it is the most common neuron, and includes most neurons from the ______ and _____.
    • multipolar
    • brain and spinal cord
  73. thick folds in the brain are called:
    gyri
  74. gyri are separated by shallow grooves called:
    sulci
  75. a very deep median groove, ____________ separates the right and left hemispheres.
    longitudinal fissure
  76. identify that following anatomical landmarks of the brain:

    gyri
    sulci
    central sulcus
    lateral sulcus
    longitudinal fissure
    transverse fissue
  77. indentify the meninges of th brain:

    dura mater
    arachnoid mater
    pia mater
  78. identify the following structures of the forebrain:

    cerebrum
    cerebral cortex
    fornix
    corpus callosum
    frontal lobe
    precentral gyris(primary motor cortex)
    parietal lobe
    postcentral gyris ( primary somatosensory cortex)
    temporal lobe
    occipital lobe
  79. identify the following structures of the dienchphalon:

    thalamus
    hypothalamus
    mammillary body
    infundibulum
    pineal gland
    pituitary gland
  80. Identify the structures of the brainstem:

    midbrain
    pons
    medulla oblongata
    hindbrain
  81. identify the structures of the midbrain:

    corpora quadrigemina
    superior colliculus
    inferior colliculus
    cerebral peduncles
  82. identifiy the structures of the cerebellum:

    arbor vitae
  83. Identify the structures of the hindbrain:

    pons
    madulla oblongata
    cerebellum
  84. identify the ventricles of the brain and pathways for the CSF:

    lateral ventricles ( right and left)
    interventricular foramina
    3rd ventricle
    cerebral aquaduct
    4th ventricle
    subarachnoid space
    central canal
  85. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the olfactory nerve:
    • number: i
    • innervates: olfactory mucosa in the nasal cavity
    • type: sensory
  86. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the optic nerve:
    • number: ii
    • innervates: retina
    • type: sensory
  87. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the oculomotor nerve:
    • number: iii
    • innervates: superior, inferior, and median rectus and inferior oblique muscles of the eye
    • type: motor
  88. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the trochlear nerve:
    • number: iv
    • innervates: superior oblique eye muscle
    • type: motor
  89. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the trigeminal:
    • number: v
    • innervates: face, nasal mucosa, and facial muscles
    • type: both
  90. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the abducens nerver:
    • number: vi
    • innervates: lateral oblique eye muscle
    • type: motor
  91. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the facial nerve:
    • number: vii
    • innervates: facial muscles and glands
    • type: both
  92. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the vestibulocochlear nerve:
    • number: viii
    • innervates: inner ear
    • type: sensory
  93. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the glossopharyngeal nerve:
    • number: ix
    • innervates: tongue, glands, outer ear
    • type: both
  94. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the vagus:
    • number: x
    • innervates: tongue, pharynx, larynx, and visceral organs
    • type: both
  95. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the accessory:
    • number: xi
    • innervates: head and neck
    • type: motor
  96. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the hypoglossal nerve:
    • number: xii
    • innervates: tongue
    • type: motor
  97. List the major nerve that arise from the cervical plexus, and name the cord level from which it arises:
    • major nerve: phrenic nerve
    • cord level: (c1 - c5)
  98. List the major nerve that arise from the brachial plexus, and name the cord level from which it arises
    • major nerves: musculocutaneous nerve
    • axiallary nerve
    • raidal nerve
    • median nerve
    • ulnar nerve
    • cord level: (c5-t1)
  99. List the major nerve that arise from the lumbar plexus, and name the cord level from which it arises
    • major nerve: femoral nerve
    • cord level: L1-L4
  100. List the major nerve that arise from the sacral plexus, and name the cord level from which it arises
    • major nerve: sciatic nerve (common fibular nerve + tibial nerve)
    • cord level: L4-s4
  101. indentify the following structures related to the spinal cord:

    gray matter
    white matter
    central canal
    dorsal (posterior) root
    dorsal (posterior) root ganglia
    ventral (anterior) root
    spinal nerve
    dorsal (posterior) ramus
    ventral (anterior) ramus
  102. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the:

    brain and cranial nerves
    brain, spinal cord, and autonomic nerves
    spinal cord and spinal nerves
    brain and spinal cord
    brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, and spinal nerves
    brain and spinal cord
  103. Put the meninges of the brain and spinal cord in order from superficial to deep:
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  104. To get from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle, CSF must flow through the:



    interventricular foramina
    choroid plexus
    central canal
    cerebral aqueduct
    subarachnoid space
    cerebral aqueduct
  105. Which cranial nerve (number and name) innervates the inner ear?

    CN IX: glossopharyngeal
    CN XI: accessory
    CN VII: facial
    CN X: vagus
    CN VIII: vestibulocochlear
    VIII: vestibulocochlear
  106. Which of the following cranial nerves relays only sensory information?


    vagus nerve
    trigeminal nerve
    hypoglossal nerve
    trochlear nerve
    olfactory nerve
    olfactory nerve
  107. The musculocutaneous nerve is part of which spinal nerve plexus?


    brachial
    cervical
    sacral
    lumbar
    coccygeal
    brachial
  108. Muscle contraction without a change in muscle length is called an ______ contraction.
    isometric
  109. Define threshold as it pertains to muscle physiology.
    Threshold is the minimum voltage necessary for contraction
  110. During muscle twitch which phase lasts the shortest amount of time: the relaxation phase, latent phase, or the contraction phase?
    Latent phase
  111. In general, the strength of muscle contraction is changed by varying three factors. Name two of the ways in which tension generation is changed to maximize force generation for a particular load.
    • Length tension relationship
    • Temporal summation
  112. The instrument used in lab to determine force generated by the forearm muscles is called a:
    Hand dynamator
  113. When performing the experiment that tested the ability of your digital flexor muscles to generate tension at different resting muscle lengths, at which wrist position were the sacromeres of the digital flexor muscles excessively shortened?
    Wrist flexed to 90 degrees
  114. Name two factors that contribute to muscle fatigue.
    • K+ build up in the ECF
    • Latic acid build up
  115. The site of muscle attachment to the more stationary bone is the:
    Origin
  116. What is the action of the buccinator?
    Compress the cheek
  117. Name two muscles of the suprahyoid group
    • Mylohyoid
    • Digastric
  118. What muscle is the prime mover of inspiration?
    Diaphram
  119. What muscle originates on the sternum and clavicle and inserts on the mastoid process of the temporal bone?
    Sternoclediomastoid
  120. Name two muscles that flex the humerus:
    • Pectoralis major
    • Corachobrachialis
  121. Name the action of the fibularis longus (include all movements as part of the action)
    Plantar flex the foot and evert the foot
  122. What muscle flexes the digits in the hand?
    Flexor digitorum superficialis
  123. Name one muscle that is involved in radial flexion:
    Extensor carpi radialis longus
  124. What muscle originates on the coracoid process of the scapula and insert on the radial tuberosity?
    Biceps brachii
  125. Name the insertion of the vastus lateralis.
    Tibial tuberosity
  126. Name the origin of the gastrocnemius.
    Femoral condyles
  127. Name two muscles that flex the knee
    • Semitendionsus
    • Semimembranosus
  128. Name the action of the gluteus Maximus (include all movements as part of the action).
    ABD and extend the thigh
  129. List the structures of the outer ear;
    • Auricle
    • Auditory canal
  130. List the structures of the middle ear:
    • Tympanic membrane
    • Tympanic cavity
    • Ossicles (3)
    • Malleus
    • Incus
    • Stapes
    • Auditory ( eustachian) tube
    • Tensor tympani muscles
    • Stapesius muscle
  131. List the structures of the inner ear:
    • Bony labyrinth
    • Perilymph
    • Membranous labyrinth
    • Endolymph
    • Cochlea
    • Oval window
    • Scala vestibuli
    • Cochlear duct (scala media)
    • Spiral organ (organ of corti)
    • Tectorial membrane
    • Basilar membrane
    • Scala tympani
    • Round window
    • Vestibule
    • Saccule
    • Utricle
    • Semicircular ducts
    • Anterior/posterior/lateral
    • Vestibulocochlear nerve
  132. Name the insertion and action of the tensor tympani muscle
    • Insertion: malleus
    • Action: pulls tympanic membrane inward to dampen it's motion
  133. List the action and insertion of the stapesius muscle:
    • Insertion: staples
    • Action: reduces motions of stapes
  134. the inner ear structures that are responsible for for static equilibrium, the preception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary are the:
    saccule and utricle
  135. the inner ear structure that is responsible for horizontal linear acceleration/declereation is the:
    utricle
  136. the inner ear structure that is responsible for verticle linear acceleration/decleration is the:
    saccule
  137. the inner ear structures that are responsible for angular acceleration are the:
    semicircular ducts
  138. identify the structures of the external eye:

    conjunctiva
    lacrimal apparatus
    lacrimal glands
    lacrimal punctum
    lacrimal canal
    lacrimal sac
    nasolacrimal ducts
  139. identify the extrinsic eye muscles:

    lateral rectus
    medial rectus
    superior rectus
    inferior rectus
    superior oblique
    inferior oblique
  140. identify the structures of the internal eye:
    fibrous layer
    sclera
    cornea
    vascular layer
    choroid
    ciliary body
    iris
    pupil
  141. identify the neural layers of the eye:

    retina
    pigment epithelium
    rods and cones
    fovea centrails
    optic disc (blind spot)
    optic nerve
    vitreous humor
    aqueous humor
    lens
  142. identify the structures of the cow eye:

    sclera
    cornea
    lens
    choroid
    ciliary body
    iris
    pupil
    retina
    optic nerve
    vitreouse humor
  143. name the innervation and action of the lateral rectus muscle:
    • innervation: vi abducens
    • action: moves eye laterally
  144. name the innervation and action of the medial rectus muscle:
    • innervation: iii oculomotor
    • action: moves eye medially
  145. name the innervation and action of the superior rectus eye muscle:
    • innervation: iii oculomotor
    • action: moves eye superiorly
  146. name the innervation and action of the inferior rectus eye muscle:
    • innervation: iii oculomotor
    • action: moves eye inferiorly
  147. name the action and innervation of the superior oblique eye muscle:
    • innervation: iv trochlear
    • action: depress and rotate the eye
  148. name the innervation and action of the inferior oblique eye muscle:
    • innervation: iii oculomotor
    • action: elevate and rotate eye
  149. identify the following endocrine structures:

    hypothalamus
    anterior pituitary gland
    posterior pituitary gland
    thyroid gland
    parathyroid gland
    adrenal glands
    pancreas
    ovaries
    testes
  150. name the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus:
    • TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone)
    • GHRH
    • GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)
    • CRH (corticotropin relaseing hormone)
    • somatostain
    • PIH
  151. name the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland:
    • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • GH
    • FSH
    • LH (luteinizing hormone)
    • ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    • PRL
  152. name the hormomes secreted by the posterior pituitary gland:
    • ADH
    • oxytocin
  153. name the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland:
    TH
  154. name the hormones secreted by the parathyroid gland:
    PTH
  155. name the hormones secreted by the adrenal glands:
    • aldosterone
    • coritsol
  156. name the horomone secreted by the pancreas:
    insulin, glucagon
  157. name the hormone secreted by the ovaries:
    estrongen, progesterone
  158. name the hormone secreted by the testes:
    testosterone
  159. name the target organ of TRH:
    anterior pituitary gland
  160. name the target organ of TSH:
    thyroid gland
  161. name the target organ of TH:
    hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland
  162. name the target organ of CRH:
    anterior pituitary gland
  163. name the target organ of ACTH:
    adrenal glands
  164. name the target organ of cortisol:
    hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
  165. name the target organ of GnRH:
    anterior pituitary
  166. name the target organ of LH:
    testes
  167. name the target organ of testosterone:
    prostate gland
  168. Which of the following hormones directly stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone? (0.25pts)

    TSH
    TRH
    ACTH
    LH
    PTH
    TSH
  169. Which organ/gland produces the hormone ACTH? (0.25pts)

    adrenal gland
    thyroid gland
    anterior pituitary gland
    hypothalamus
    posterior pituitary gland
    anterior pituitary gland
  170. Which of the following structures is part of the outer ear? (0.25pts)

    auricle
    bony labyrinth
    saccule
    cochlea
    stapedius muscle
    auricle
  171. Which of the following structures is part of the inner ear? (0.25pts)



    semicircular canals (ducts)
    malleus
    tympanic membrane
    auricle
    stapedius muscle
    semicircular canals
  172. Which of the following structures is involved in sensing linear acceleration? (0.5pts)



    Eustachian (auditory) tube
    semicircular canals (ducts)
    tensor tympani muscle
    ossicles
    tectorial membrane
    saccule
    saccule
  173. Which eye muscle is innervated by the abducens nerve? (0.25pts)



    superior rectus
    inferior oblique
    medial rectus
    superior oblique
    lateral rectus
    lateral rectus
  174. The afferent division of the nervous system carries: (0.25pts)



    sensory information from the rest of the body to the CNS
    sensory information from the CNS to the rest of the body
    motor information from the CNS to the rest of the body
    motor information from the rest of the body to the CNS
    sersory information from the rest of the body to the CNS
  175. Trace the flow of CSF through the brain by putting the following in the correct order
    • lateral ventricles
    • interventricluar foramina
    • 3rd ventricle
    • cerebral aquaduct
    • 4th ventricle
    • central canal
  176. The thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland are all part of the: (0.25pts)



    brainstem
    midbrain
    cerebellum
    diencephalon
    cerebrum
    diencephalon
  177. Which cranial nerve (number and name) transmits sensory information from the face and motor information to the muscles of mastication? (0.25pts)



    CN VII: facial
    CN V: trigeminal
    CN IX: glossopharyngeal
    CN XI: accessory
    CN X: vagus
    cn v: tirgeminal
  178. Action potentials travel from the dorsal (posterior) root ganglion directly into the: (0.5pts)



    ventral (anterior) root
    spinal cord
    ventral (anterior) ramus
    dorsal (posterior) ramus
    dorsal (posterior) root
    dorsal posterior root

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