A&P Chapter16

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A&P Chapter16
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2011-11-28 00:55:33
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A&P Chapter16
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  1. Function of digestive system is to
    break down food - carbohydrates, protein, fats
  2. The process of breaking down food into smaller substance.
    digestion
  3. 5 activities of digestions:
    Ingestion - taking food into the body
    Peristalsis - movement of food to digestive tract
    Digestion - breakdown of food
    Absorption - from digestive tract to the cells
    Defecation - elimination of food
  4. Long continuous tube from mouth to anus.
    Gastrointestinal tract OR Alimentary canal
  5. Organs of gastrointestinal tract OR alimentary canal
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  6. Accessory organs of gastrointestinal tract OR alimentary canal
    • teeth
    • tongue
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
  7. Layers of gastrointestinal tract OR alimentary canal
    coats OR tunics
  8. 4 Layers of gastrointestinal tract OR alimentary canal. (from inside out)
    • Tunica Mucosa
    • Tunica Submucosa
    • Tunica Muscularis
    • Tunica Serosa (adventitia)
  9. Mouth OR oral cavity aka
    buccal cavity
  10. Oral Cavity functions:
    Taste
    Mechanical breakdown of food using teeth
    Chemical breakdown of food using saliva - enzyme amylase
  11. Under the tongue symmetrical division called
    lingual frenulum
  12. Found in front of the tongue, rough and for leaking.
    filiform papillae
  13. Found towards the back of the tongue, for taste buds.
    • fungiform papillae
    • circumvallate papillae
  14. The major portion of saliva is secreted by_____.
    salivary glands
  15. Salivary glands are:
    • Parotid gland
    • Submandibular gland (OR submaxillary gland)
    • Sublingual gland
  16. Enzyme breaks down carbohydrates like starch
    amylase
  17. Teeth aka
    dentes
  18. chewing aka
    mastication
  19. There are _____ temporary teeth or DECIDUOUS teeth in infants.
    20
  20. There are _____ permanent teeth in adult.
    32
  21. The 8 front teeth called ____. They are used to CUT food.
    incisors
  22. The 4 _____ teeth are used to tear food. They are aka CUSPIDS - 1 cusp.
    canine
  23. The ____ teeth used to grind food.
    molar
  24. Gums aka
    gingivae
  25. Caused by virus, infects salivary glands. Swelling of salivary glands under the chin.
    mumps
  26. A tooth portion above the gums called ____
    crown
  27. A tooth hard substance that protect the tooth from wear & acid called____.
    enamel
  28. A tooth embedded in the socket called ___.
    root
  29. A tooth made of ____. Enclosed the pulp - delicate tissue.
    dentin
  30. Base of the tooth, which blood vessels and nerves enter the tooth called _____.
    apical foremen
  31. Is part of digestive system & repiratory system. Passageway of food and air. It's function is use for swallowing.
    pharynx
  32. Pharynx divisions:
    nasopharynx
    oropharynx
    laryngopharynx
  33. swallowing aka
    deglutition
  34. It is a mass of food
    bolus
  35. stomach folds
    rugae
  36. Stomach cells & secretes:
    Zymogenic OR Chief cells - enzyme Pepsinogen
    Parietal cells - hydrochloric acid, activates Pepsinogen to become Pepsin; Pepsin - breaks down protein.
    Mucous cells - secrete mucus; protect stomach from being digested.
  37. Pancreas cells & secretes:
    alpha cell - secrete hormone Glucagon
    beta cell - secrete hormone Insulin
  38. This called when hydrocloric acid & digestive enzymes wore out the layer of stomach. May caused excessive production of acid.
    ulcers
  39. The largest organ of digestive system.
    liver
  40. Liver divided into 2 lobes. What are those?
    • Right lobe
    • Left lobe
  41. Liver is separated into two lobes Right lobe & Left lobe by _____.
    falciform ligament
  42. It's function is to store bile produced by the liver.
    gallbladder
  43. Absorption occur in ____. Absorption of nutrients like sugar, amino acid, fatty acid, water, vitamins & mineral.
    small intestine
  44. The digested, semifluid contents in the small intestine
    chyme
  45. Folds of the intestine
    plicae
  46. Absorption of water occurs in _____. Refered to as Bowel.
    large intestine
  47. Is the inflammation of the liver caused by excessive alcohol consumption.
    hepatitis
  48. Is caused by Hepatitis_A_virus (HAV). Contact with contaminated water & food.
    Hepatitis A
  49. Is caused by Hepatitis_B_virus (HBV). Transmitted by contaminated by blood transfusion, needles or sexual contacts with an infected partner.
    Hepatitis B
  50. Is a long degenerative disease of the liver.

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