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2010-03-24 21:39:10
Statistics Midterm

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  1. reliability
    • degree to which the measure will generate the same result in the same condition
    • consistency of an experiment or test
  2. validity
    • degree to which we measure what we purport to measure
    • the factual accuracy of an observation
  3. reliability vs. validity
    • validity is almost entirely dependent on reliability
    • both are necessary
  4. scientific method
    • 1) statement/hypothesis;
    • 2) observations;
    • 3) replicability;
    • 4) model/law
  5. order
    • processes are not random;
    • they happen in a recognized pattern or sequence
  6. determinism
    • all events have a cause;
    • psychological phenomena have antecedents, or preceeding circumstances that cause an event
  7. empiricism
    practice of relying on observation and experimentation
  8. parsimony
    • the simplest answer is usually the right one;
    • good if supported by data
  9. naturalistic observation
    observations made in natural or native settings
  10. hypothesis
    an educated guess
  11. independendent variable
    the manipulated variable
  12. dependent variable
    the variable whose reaction is being observed
  13. experimental group
    group that receives the experimental treatment (some manipulation by the experimenter)
  14. control group
    treated exactly like the experimental group except they do not receive the experimental treatment
  15. primacy
    tendency to remember things better when they come first in a series
  16. recency
    tendency to remember things better when they come last in a series
  17. experimental bias
    anything the researcher does that interferes w/ the experimental design
  18. single-blind study
    subjects are not aware of which group they're in
  19. double-blind study
    • both judges and subjects are unaware of what group the subjects are in;
    • often used in drug research or anything involving subjective judging
  20. within subject design
    participants are both the control and the experimental groups (all subjects are in all conditions)
  21. demand characteristics
    environmental cues that lead to a subject/participant to respond a particular way (either subtle or not subtle) because they know what the researcher is looking for
  22. correlational studies
    • studies of the relationship between two variables;
    • does not establish causality!
  23. factorial design
    experimental design looking at two or more independent variables
  24. main effect
    number of variables
  25. interaction effect
    • when the effect of 1 variable is not the same at each level of the other variable.
    • (intersect=interaction; no intersect=no interaction)
  26. quasi-experimental design
    still have experimental and control groups, but no random assignment w/ an open system
  27. small "n" research
    • less than 30 subjects;
    • results are less generalizable;
    • often used in drug trials
  28. case study
    a detailed, non-experimental analysis of a person or group
  29. generalization
    the extent to which a finding applies to persons other than those that were the subject of the study
  30. controls
    must account for other factors by holding for other conditions and subject variables constant
  31. confounds
    some other variable(s) that affects the results
  32. paradigms
    a model or pattern an investigator uses to organize research
  33. between group design
    • two separate groups: experimental and control;
    • each subject is in one condition
  34. matched subject design
    when a subject variable is so critical in the experiment, subjects are matched on that variable
  35. repeated measures design
    all subjects are exposed to all conditions, all subjects are their own control
  36. placebo design
    two control groups are used, w/ one receiving a "placebo" version of the treatment
  37. randomization
    participants are assigned by chance to 1 of 2+ conditions
  38. ad-lib matching
    matching a sample as best you can
  39. random block design
    using matching techniques to try to equate groups on important characteristics
  40. latin square design
    • counterbalancing procedure;
    • each condition occurs equally often
    • (1,2,3,4; 2,3,4,1)
  41. practice effect
    improvement over multiple trials
  42. fatigue effect
    when subjects become bored or tired and their performance decreases
  43. attrition
    loss of participants over a long period of time
  44. problem statement
    a precise statement of what knowledge is sought and why it was sought
  45. method
    • the plan of the research;
    • how the knowledge was gained
  46. results
    a precise statement of the knowledge that was gained
  47. variable
    a characteristic that varies between individuals
  48. data
    observation made on a variable
  49. measurement
    a scheme for the assignment of numbers or symbols to specify different characteristics of a variable
  50. sample
    collection of subjects we select as representative of the population
  51. population
    the group of subjects to whom the research applies
  52. descriptive statistics
    summary descriptors or characteristics of the population/sample (mean, median, & mode)
  53. descriptive research
    a research plan undertaken to define the characteristics and/or relationship among variables based on systematic observation of these variables
  54. experimental research
    a research plan undertaken to test relationships among variables based on systemic observation of variables that are manipulated by the researcher
  55. "n"
    number of participants in a study
  56. "s"
  57. scale
    a specific scheme for assigning numbers or symbols to designate characteristics of a variable
  58. nominal scale
    • qualitative scale;
    • labels used to differentiate observations
  59. ordinal scale
    • scale that implies an order (ascending or descending);
    • ranked, not w/ set intervals
  60. interval scale
    • scale w/ equality between units;
    • has an arbitrarily assigned zero points;
    • can only do +, & -
  61. ratio scale
    • scale w/ equality between units;
    • has an absolute zero points;
    • can do +, -, *, & /
  62. distribution
    collection of measurements viewed in terms of the frequency of observations
  63. frequency
    • way to organize data;
    • can simplify w/ a graph
  64. bell curve
    • the shape of a "normal" distribution;
    • mean of 100, standard distribution of 15;
    • mean=median=mode
  65. measures of central tendency
    indexes that refer to how scores tend to cluster in a particular distribution
  66. mean
    • the sum of the scores in a distribution divided by the number of scores
    • (aka the average)
  67. median
    the midpoint or midscore in a distribution
  68. mode
    the most frequent score in a distribution
  69. indices of dispersion/measures of variability
    • indexes that describe the dispersion or scatter across the measurement scale;
    • range, variance, & standard deviation
  70. range
    the highest score in a distribution minus the lowest score
  71. variance
    the mean of the squared deviation scores about the mean of a distribution
  72. standard deviation
    • the square root of the mean of the squared deviation scores about the mean of a distribution
    • (or, the square root of the variance)
  73. statistic
    characteristic of a sample
  74. parameter
    characteristic of a population
  75. normal distribution
    definition of a particular functional relation between deviations about the mean of a distribution and the probability of these different deviations occuring
  76. standard error of the mean
    the standard deviation of a distribution of sample means
  77. population mean
    inferred by the mean of the sample
  78. null hypothesis
    a statement/assumption of no difference
  79. research hypothesis
    a statement/assumption of a statistically significant difference
  80. significance
    the level of calculated probability was sufficiently low as to serve as grounds for rejection of the null hypothesis
  81. 1-tailed test
    a directional hypothesis test that incorporates a rejection region in only one tail of the probability curve used for a given statistic
  82. 2-tailed test
    a nondirectional hypothesis test that incorporates rejection regions in both tails of the probability curve used for a given statistic
  83. t-test
    used to calculate the probability of whether a particular difference between sample means would be expected under the terms of the null hypothesis
  84. ANOVA
    • used when there are 3+ values to compare;
    • shows if there is a difference somewhere in the values
  85. F-ratio
    variance between groups / variance within groups
  86. multivariate analysis
    statistical model for testing the influence on multiple dependent variables in a single research design
  87. multifactor analysis
    statistical model for testing the consequences of manipulating 2+ independent variables in a single research design
  88. interaction effect
    whatever nonerror variation is observed among the individual group when the main-effects variation has been removed
  89. non-parametric statistics
    • used in small "n" research;
    • when descriptive alone is ok
  90. Chi-squared
    • compares an observable set of frequency with an expected set of frequency;
    • can be used to detect bias