- 1. Salivary glands - begins to function and produce saliva as soon as food or any other substances touches the receptors of the mouth (a physiological reaction). Glands fxned even at the sight, smell, or sound of food.
- 2. Reflexes - Pavlov wanted to discover the reflex mechanism of psychological activity into an experimental theory of conditioned reflexes. He believed that all unknown processes in the brain should be studied by objective methods and that physiology was the most suitable field for this work.
- 3. Unconditioned and Conditioned reflexes - Pavlov suggested two categories:
- a. Unconditioned reflexes - associated w/the direct influence of a substance on the receptors within the mouth; it is inborn. This condition is a specific situation, or a specific environment in which the reflex is formed.
- b. Conditioned reflexes - appears only under certain conditions; aka "acquired reflexes." This condition is the existence of the underlying unconditioned reflex.
- 3. Associative Connections - Pavlov applied the term association to physiological processes (better known as physiological associations). Pavlov identified language as a form of communication, the second signaling system, in which words are just sounds before a person or an animal forms associations that represent the meaning of those words. The words used in the language serve as signals to toerh signals that form conditioned reflexes.
4. Excitement and Inhibition
- this was used to explain how the brain develops conditioned reflexes, locks, and unlocks. Pavlov proposed that the principles of excitement and inhibition could explain the complex functioning of the nervous system. He assumed that a nonstop process of excitement and inhibition regulates our life. They influence each other (aka induction
) that manifests in sleep and awakening, stress and relaxation, or pleasure and sadness.
5. Generalization and Differentiation -
How do both excitement and inhibition work? At the beginning of the formation of any reflex, the reaction tends to be very generalized: the animal tends to respond to any sound or touch regardless of where it was applied. After a period of training, the differentiation takes place and the animal learns how to respond to only specific signals. According to Pavlov, G & D are two sides of the process of excitement and inhibition. These processes are evolutionarily useful: quick learning is essential for survival.
6. Characteristics of the Nervous System
- Pavlov interpreted the dynamics of the nervous system from a standpoint of three functions: strength, balance, and agility.