H&S Chap7

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awapuhi01
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H&S Chap7
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2011-12-03 03:42:03
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History systems chapter
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History and Systems Final - Chapter 7
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  1. What 3 developments contributed to early behaviorism?
    1. Success of Animal Psychology

    2. Accomplishments of Physiology

    3. Search for New Methods
  2. To understand difficult, complex phenomena, a scientist should seek the simplest explanation. This principle is known in science as:
    Parsimony
  3. Portraying animal behavior in human terms is called:
    Anthropomorphism
  4. A physical and chemical reaction of orientation of the organism in a field of force:
    Tropism
  5. A concept in Thorndike's theory to describe the dynamic of learning a habit; it also indicates the connection between learning and the time it takes to learn:
    Learning curve
  6. The term in Pavlov's theory to describe physiological activities of the brain's cortex; Pavlov commonly called it behavior:
    Highest nervous activity
  7. In Pavlov's theory, the reflexes associated with the direct influence of a substance on the receptors within the mouth:
    Unconditioned reflexes
  8. In Pavlov's theory, the reflexes that appear only under certain conditions:
    Conditioned reflexes
  9. In Pavlov's theory, this is language as a form of communication in contrast to the first signaling system, such as the sight of food, for example:
    Second signaling system
  10. The process, according to Pavlov, of coinfluence between excitement and inhibition:
    Induction
  11. A reflection of the functional ability of the neurons to maintain the state of activation or excitement without developing self-protecting inhibition (described by Pavlov):
    Strength of the nervous system
  12. In Pavlov's theory, refers to the quickness of the activation of excitement or the quickness of change between the two states of inhibition and excitement:
    Agility of the nervous system
  13. Refers to equilibrium between excitement and inhibition within the nervous system:
    Balance of the nervous system
  14. The name of Bekhterev's theory, the central concepts of which were reflex and adaptation:
    Reflexology
  15. The study of the emergence, development, and behavior of groups that display their collective activity in unity:
    Collective reflexology
  16. What are the three founding principles of behaviorism?
    1. Stimulus and response (behavior is a set of responses to specific signials)

    2. Habit formation (behavioral responses become useful and retained)

    3. Habit integration (simple reactions develop in complex acts)
  17. How did Ivan Pavlov come about?
    Researchers wanted to use their physiological findings to better understand human psychology and its behavioral manifestations.

    Pavlov & his assistants first dinstinguished themselves worldwide for their study of the digestive system. He was famous for his studies with salivary glands and their response to food (he termed this "psychic secretion").
  18. What was Pavlov trying to study and what principles did he come up with?
    • 1. Salivary glands - begins to function and produce saliva as soon as food or any other substances touches the receptors of the mouth (a physiological reaction). Glands fxned even at the sight, smell, or sound of food.
    • 2. Reflexes - Pavlov wanted to discover the reflex mechanism of psychological activity into an experimental theory of conditioned reflexes. He believed that all unknown processes in the brain should be studied by objective methods and that physiology was the most suitable field for this work.
    • 3. Unconditioned and Conditioned reflexes - Pavlov suggested two categories:
    • a. Unconditioned reflexes - associated w/the direct influence of a substance on the receptors within the mouth; it is inborn. This condition is a specific situation, or a specific environment in which the reflex is formed.
    • b. Conditioned reflexes - appears only under certain conditions; aka "acquired reflexes." This condition is the existence of the underlying unconditioned reflex.
    • 3. Associative Connections - Pavlov applied the term association to physiological processes (better known as physiological associations). Pavlov identified language as a form of communication, the second signaling system, in which words are just sounds before a person or an animal forms associations that represent the meaning of those words. The words used in the language serve as signals to toerh signals that form conditioned reflexes.

    4. Excitement and Inhibition - this was used to explain how the brain develops conditioned reflexes, locks, and unlocks. Pavlov proposed that the principles of excitement and inhibition could explain the complex functioning of the nervous system. He assumed that a nonstop process of excitement and inhibition regulates our life. They influence each other (aka induction) that manifests in sleep and awakening, stress and relaxation, or pleasure and sadness.

    5. Generalization and Differentiation - How do both excitement and inhibition work? At the beginning of the formation of any reflex, the reaction tends to be very generalized: the animal tends to respond to any sound or touch regardless of where it was applied. After a period of training, the differentiation takes place and the animal learns how to respond to only specific signals. According to Pavlov, G & D are two sides of the process of excitement and inhibition. These processes are evolutionarily useful: quick learning is essential for survival.

    6. Characteristics of the Nervous System - Pavlov interpreted the dynamics of the nervous system from a standpoint of three functions: strength, balance, and agility.
  19. How did Pavlov view Mental Illness?
    a. One of the characteristics of mental illness was the individual's inability to form new reflexes: he or she uses old reactions when some new behavior is necessary.

    b. Another characteristic is a combination of contradictory signals that create confusion or conflict in the individual. Signals could be extremely strong, thus causing a constant "what is it?" reflex.

    c. A collision of excitement and inhibition is one of the most obvious examples of how mental illness is formed.
  20. Name two central concepts of Vladimir Bekhterev's theory.
    Bekhterev sought a theoretical model to explain the interaction between the body and the mind. He made a distinct effort to challenge subjective psychology and to promote a new, objective psychology free from introspection.

    Two central concepts to his theory are as follows:

    1. He introduced the principle of energy transformation to explain the correspondence between physical aand psychological processes.

    2. He also believed that science must study the individual from a complex, multidisciplinary perspective, in the center of which he hoped to see his theory of reflexology.
  21. What was collective reflexology?
    Bekhterev applied the reflexological principles to the study of group behavior. His Collective Reflexology was one of the earliest books in social psychology. Reflexology can describe group behavior in the same way it describes an individual's behavior. Group activities were special kinds of social reflexes. He coined the special term collective reflexology, or the study of the emergence, development, and behavior of groups that display their collective activity in unity. It investigates ways and forms of collective reflexes.
  22. How did Bekhterev understand immortality?
    He used the concept of energy transformation to discuss death and immortality. He argued that physical death extinguishes forever the existence of the body. According to the principle of energy conservation, energy cannot disappear without a trace. It cannot appear without being caused by another source of energy. When a person dies, the body decomposes and ceases to exist. The decay of the body leads to decomposition of the organism into simple elements. Yet life is not over. It transforms into new forms of energy, into the thoughts and actions of other people. This is, in fact, the life cycle of immortality.
  23. How did Bekhterev explain psychological processes?
    Bekhterev explained psychological processes through the concept of energy. He endorsed the popular assumption that energy does not disappear, but transforms from one form to another. Applied to physiology and psychology, the function of the sensory systems of the human body is a transformation of external energy into a kind of internal energy. Bekhterev believed he could explain all psychological processes as transformations of energy accumulated in the brain and nervous system.
  24. What are the two types of reflexes defined by Bekhterev?
    1. Innate reflexes - reflexes that are stimulated by the body. (Ex: When a person's hand is placed on a very sharp object, an innate defensive reflex is activated and the hand is pulled back.)

    2. Associated reflexes - reflexes that are trained or acquired with experience. (Ex: The common reaction of cautiousness when we handle sharp objects - an association is already created to avoid pain).
  25. What is reflexology?
    A new scientific discipline at this time in which Bekhterev dedicated the rest of his life. In general, reflexology are part of some univeral rules governing nature. Take intertia as an example. On the level of behavior, interia appears as something unchanging, such as rigid thinking, laziness, stubborness, or apathy.
  26. What are Bekhterev's accomplishments?
    • - Founder of first Russioan experimental psychological laboratory
    • - Challenged subjective psychology to promote objective psychology that was free from intropsection
    • - Placed human bx in the center of exp studies
    • - Considered "reflexes" the pillars of human activity
    • - Introduced principle of energy transformation
    • - Studied and described several brain centers used today
  27. What are the 3 founding principles of behaviorism?
    • 1. Stimulus and response (behavior is set of responses to specific signals)
    • 2. Habit formation (behavioral responses become useful and retained)
    • 3. Habit integration (simple reactions develop in complex acts)
  28. What type of experimental method did Thorndike employ?
    The Puzzle Box was a new experimental method used for animal research. Thorndike would place the research animals inside a "puzzle box," which wa specially desinged cage or enclosure. An animal could escape by tripping a latch mechanism that opened a door or lifted a small barrier. He used this method to observe and measure the behavior of animals.
  29. What were the principles of learning according to Thorndike?
    Law of Effect: Of several responses made to the same situation, those accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction are likely to be learned. Dissatisfaction produces an opposite effect. Discomfort means avoidance of that situation. Law of Effect explains how people form harmful habits.
  30. What are the types of the nervous system according to Pavlov?
    • 1. Strong
    • - Balanced --> Agile (strong, balanced and agile type. Inhibition and excitement are balanced. Person adjusts quickly to changes. Makes quick decisions and changes strategies when necessary) and Inertial (Calm, slow, can resist pressures; can handle difficult situations by ignoring them or taking carefully planned decisions. Changes in behavioral strategies are difficult to make).
    • - Imbalanced: Strong, Imbalanced type in which excitement dominates over inhibition. Explosive and temperamental, feisty and energetic. Can stand up to difficulties but cannot control emotions and self-control.

    2. Weak: Difficulties under pressure, including lack of time. Highly sensitive to external signals and has hard time making quick decisions or choices.
  31. Overall, how was intropection perceived at the time?
    It was rejected. Psychologists began developing new theories and research methods to study behavior objectively and experimentally.
  32. Why was John Watson's Behaviorism popular?
    • 1. Support - his ideas were simple, understandable and attracted many psychologists
    • 2. Simplicity - described results with amazing clarity and tremendous enthusiasm (e.g., practice makes perfect).
    • 3. Inspiration - he was an enthusiastic researcher and truly believed his meethods would bring new possibilities to psychology and society. It was straightforward and simple and inspired others.
    • 4. Controversy - This has brought Watson many supporters in the way of enjoying challenging the establishment.
    • 5. Practicality - He believed in applied psychology so university students would know how to apply theory to the real world.
  33. What are the principles of continuity?
    SEE Bekhterev's understanding of Immortality and principle of energy transformation.
  34. How did John Watson view mental illness?
    Mental illness was a kind of habit disturbance. There must've been a situation or condition in the past, an emotional trauma, physical or sexual abuse, masturbation, or something else that triggered the development of the dysfunctional habit. This habit, in a chain reaction, caused the development of other progressively maladaptive habits.
  35. How did John Watson view emotions?
    • He divided emotions into three categories:
    • 1. Love
    • 2. Fear
    • 3. Rage

    He considered them as conditioned responses or habits learned during childhood. Emotion formation was a process of habit formation.
  36. What are some issues in the Little Albert experiment?
    • 1. Reearch design was weak
    • 2. Based upon subjective findings, not objective measures
    • 3. Unethical issues within experiment - causing harm and distress to person

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