wed class communication

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joyjohnson
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118931
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wed class communication
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2011-11-27 10:53:05
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wed class communication
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wed class communication
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  1. goals of verbal communication
    establish rapport

    obtain information

    relay pertinent information

    give instructions
  2. important factors for successful verbal communication
    the way the material is presented

    attitude of the speaker

    tone & volume of the speakers voice

    degree to which the speaker & receiver are ready & able to listen

    • Vocabulary
    • use/avoidance of jargon
    • dependent on audience

    clarity

    organization of ideas

    useful humor vs destructive humor
  3. 7 levels of effective listening
    • 1. analytical
    • specific information & arranging into categories

    • 2. directed
    • to answer specific questions

    • 3. attentive
    • for general information to get overall picture

    • 4. exploratory
    • own interest in subject

    • 5. appreciative
    • aesthetic pleasure, ie music

    • 6. courteous
    • obligated

    • 7. passive
    • overhearing, not attentive
  4. goals of the health professional
    improve listening acuity-to hear accurately

    learn to ascertain how accurately a patient has heard you
  5. sensory overloading
    rate a which listener can process information varies

    active listening requires undivided attention

    too much sensory input can cause distraction
  6. Steps to more effective listening
    1. selective listening

    2. concentrate on central themes

    3. judge content, as opposed to style of delivery

    4. listen with an open mind rather than emotionally

    5. summarize what you heard before speaking again

    6. clarify before proceeding
  7. goals of the patient interview
    procure information

    provide information

    therapy

    persuasion to follow the course of therapy
  8. Parts of the interview
    • introduction
    • establish relationship

    • body
    • accomplish work

    • closing
    • confirm outcome for both parties
  9. verbal vs non-verbal communication
    • social distance 4-12 feet
    • more formal business,social

    • public distance 12-25 ft
    • no physical contact, little or no eye contact
    • strangers

    • pantomime and demonstration
    • non-english
    • speaking patient

    • aphasia
    • hearing impaired
    • to supplement verbal instructions

    • metacommunication
    • gestures
    • facial expressions
    • physical appearance
    • eye contact


    • height
    • establish authority or project submissiveness


    body tension

    posturing

    physical appearance

    • touch
    • distance zones
    • *intimate distance
    • comforting/protecting
    • *personal distance
    • 1 1/2-4 ft personal interest
  10. responding to active listening
    paraphrase

    reflection of content-echoing

    reflection of feelings

    request of clarification

    silence

    summarization
  11. Lanaguage:
    Sensitive Terminology
    • EXAMPLE:
    • he has a broken back, so he is confined to a wheelchair.
    • John, who has a spinal cord injury, uses a wheelchair for mobility

    • he is dependent on crutches
    • He walks with crutches

    • confined to a wheelchair; wheelchair bound
    • oman who uses a wheelchair
  12. Lanaguage:
    Sensitive Terminology
    • Examples of some terms to avoid:
    • victim, stricken, afflicted
    • indicate unhealthy status

    crippled-paints a picture of someone who cannot do anything

    Epileptic-person who has epilepsy

    Spastic-lack of coordination
  13. Language:
    Sensitive terminology
    words with strong negative overtones:

    • imbecile
    • moron
    • feeble-minded
    • deaf-mute
    • dummy
  14. Lanaguage:
    Sensitive Terminology
    people have diseases, disabilities, impairments

    people are not the sum product of all their medical conditions

    • maintain person's self-esteem
    • consider the persons 1st in your words & thoughts
    • emphasize the person's abilities vs disability
  15. Teaching the Learning process (11)
    1. Identify the needes of the learner
  16. teaching the learning process
    2. Identify a level of learning or skill to be accimplished

    specific knowledge or skill to be accomplished

    does the learner have the prerequisite skills?

    determine ways to provide the prerequisites
  17. Teaching the learning process
    3. What is to be learned?

    observable behavior

    who will deomonstratre this behavior

    conditions where the behavior will be domonstrated

    minimal level of acceptable behavior
  18. teaching the learning process
    4. make certain the learner understands the purpose of learning

    tell the learner why the behavior is to be learned

    relate the learning to past experiences and to future experiences

    ask the learner to state what is to be learned

    ask the learner why he needs to learn what is being taught
  19. Teaching the Learning Process
    6. Demonstrate to the learner what is to be learned

    use appropriate materials and examples

    make the demonstration as similar as possible to the situation in which the learning is to be used
  20. Teaching the learning process
    7. Provide the oppportunity to practice

    make the practice situation similar to the actual situation

    provide adequate practice

    identify resources that asre available beyond the experience
  21. Teaching the Learning process
    8. provide feedback on performance

    indicate the extent the behavior has been learned

    make suggestions for improvement

    provide additional information, explanation or demonstration

    assist the learner in identifying how he is learning
  22. Teaching the Learning process
    9. Give some examples of the use of the behavior in everyday life

    present several examples

    present examples similar to the actual situations in the learner's life

    incorporate principles and cues in the examples
  23. Teaching the Learning Process
    10. Ask the learner to give examples of the use of the behavior

    determine that the examples reflect actual, possible situations and understanding of the principles
  24. Teaching the Learning Process
    11. Determine that the learner has learned what is taught

    identify and implement an activity that will allow demonstration of learning

    determine that the minimal level of acceptable performance has been met
  25. Types of nonverbal communication & importance
    pantomine demonstration: It augment or substitute verbal communication

    metacommunication: gestures, facial expressions, physical appearance, and other signs. It alters or supplements spoken words.
  26. areas in which pantomine & demonstration can almost always serve as complements to verbal communications
    meeting someone: hand shake, nodding

    expressing approval: toothy smile, round unblinking eyes

    referring to oneself: pointing to oneself, thumping one's chest

    expressing words when pointing & posturing cannot be conveyed: monosyllables
  27. How the aphasic patient can benefit from pantomime & demonstrations
    if the patient is unable to interpret incoming verbal communication,pantomine & demonstration will be used as a substitute of verbal communication

    if the patient is unable toform words, he/she may opt to use pantomime & demonstrations as a way tocommunicate with the health professional
  28. guidelines to follow in communicating by the nonverbal means of pantomime & demonstration
    1. face the person so that he/she derives the benefit of facial expression, lip motion and posture

    2. have light on your face rather than behind you, which can create shadows & confusion about the message you are sending

    3. demonstrate while standing beside and in full view of the person because the effect of facing the patient directly is much the same as looking in the mirror-right & left are reversed
  29. Relationship of pantomime & demonstration to the idea of metacommunication
    pantomime is an exaggered form of metacommunication: It brings to the surface those postures, facial expressions, and gestures that have understood meanings

    actions that accompany words modify their meaning

    metacommunication is used during any human interaction in which 2 people are in each other's presence
  30. components of metacommunication
    1. facial expression

    2. physical appearance

    3. touch
  31. ways in which aq health professional conveys authority without saying anything
    height

    eye contact

    distance

    position

    posture

    gestures involving the extremities

    dress

    language
  32. pros & cons of wearing uniforms by health professionals
    • pros: facilitates communications:
    • quick mdeans of indentification,
    • simple gain of admittance to a patient's room,
    • comfort: designed for durability and movement;
    • efficient & economical mode of dress

    cons: creates unneccessary distance or gives a sense of undue authority to the health professional
  33. benefits & risks of being in a profession that involves touching a patient
    • benefits:
    • tools of communication,
    • therapy and diagnoses procedures

    • risks:
    • invasion of private space, misunderstanding,
    • inappropriateness
  34. Hall's 4 "distance zones"
    1. intimate distance - direct contact

    2. personal distance - 1 1/2 to 4 feet

    3. social distance - 4-12 feet

    4. public distance 12-25 feet
  35. examples of ways in which time awareness varies from culture to culture
    USA-"punctuality communicates respect while tardiness is an insult"-Harrison

    knowledge of time in other cultures :to arrive exactly in time is an insult"

    is there an appropriate amount of tardiness?

    length of professional services vs completion of treatment

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