Nutrition during pregnancy

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  1. Recommended weight gain during pregnancy
    Total weight gain 11.2-15.9 kg (25-35 lbs)

    1-2 kg (3-4 lbs) during the first trimester

    approximately 0.4 kg (1lb) per week for the last two trimesters
  2. Increase in calories during pregnancy
    340 calories/day is recommended during the secont drimester

    452 calories/day is recommended during the third trimester

    if the patient is breast feeding an additional intake of 330 calories/day is recommended during the first 6 months and additional intake of 400 calories/day for the second 6 months
  3. An increase in protien is essential for
    basic growth
  4. An increase in folic acid
    is crucial for neurological development and prevention of neural tube defects

    • Foods high in folic acid are
    • leafy vegetables
    • dried peas and beans
    • seeds
    • orange juice
    • breads, cereals and other grains are fortified with folic acid

    increased intake of folic acid should be encouraged for clients who wish to become pregnant and patients of childbearing age

    it is recommended that 600mcg of floic acid should be taken during pregnancy

    current recommendations for patients who are lactating include consuming 500mcg of folic acid
  5. Iron intake during pregnancy
    supplements are often added to prenatal plan to facilitate an increase of the maternal RBC mass

    Iron is best absorbed when taken with a good source of vitamen C

    Milk and caffeine interfere with the absorption of iron supplements

    • Good food sources of Iron
    • beef liver
    • red meats
    • fish
    • poultry
    • dries peas and beans
    • fortified cereals and breads

    a stool softener may need to be added to decrease constipation experienced with iron supplements
  6. Calcium intake during pregnancy
    bone and teeth formation

    • Good sources of calcium
    • milk
    • calcium-fortified soy milk
    • fortified orange juice
    • nuts
    • legumes
    • dark green leafy vegetables

    • daily recommendation is
    • 1,000 mg/dayfor pregnant and nonpregnant women over the age of 19

    1,300 mg/day for those under 19 years of age
  7. Recommended fluid intake during pregnancy
    • 2-3 L of fluids daily
    • fluids that are preferable include
    • water
    • fruit juice
    • milk
  8. Caffine intake during pregnancy
    • should be limited to 300 mg/day
    • The equivalent of 500-750 mL/day of coffee may increase the risk of a spontaneous abortion or fetal intrauterine growth restriction
  9. Risks for poor nutrition during pregnancy
    • Age, culture, socioeconomic
    • adolescents may have poor nutritional habits (a diet low in vitamins and protein, not taking prescribed iron suppplements)
    • vegetarians may have low protein, calcium, iron, zinc, and bitamin B12
    • nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
    • anemia
    • eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulemia
    • pregnant patients diagnosed with the appetite diorder pica (craving to eat nonfood substances such as dirt or red clay) this disorder may diminish the amount of nutritional foods taken in
    • excessive weight gain can lead to macrosomia (Excessive birth weight) and labor complications
    • inability to gain weight may result in low birth weight of the newborn
    • financially unable to purchase/acess food. Therefore the nurse should advise the patient of "Women infants and children" programs that are federallly available for pregnant women and their children (up to 5 years of age)
  10. Interventions for nausea during pregnancy
    • teach patient to eat dry crackers or toast
    • avoid alcohol
    • caffeine
    • fats and spices
    • also avoid drinking fluids with meals
    • DO NOT take medication to control nausea without first checking with the physician
  11. Interventions for constipation during pregnancy
    • increase fluid consumption
    • include extra fiber in the diet
    • fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
  12. Maternal phenylketonuuria (PKU)
    this is a maternal genetic disease in which high levels of Phenylalanine pose a danger to the fetus

    it is important for the women to resume the PKU diet at least 3 months prior to becoming pregnant

    the diet should include foods that are low in phenylalanine (fruits, vegetables, whole grains)

    • foods high in protien should be avoided
    • (fish, poultry, meat, eggs, nuts, dairy products)
Card Set
Nutrition during pregnancy
Nurtition during pregnancy
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