Pre med terms 91-140.txt

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Pre med terms 91-140.txt
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2011-11-25 16:28:36
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biology pre med
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PBGHS Honors Biology Pre Med Terms
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  1. ´╗┐Phagocytosis
    A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances, accomplished mainly by macrophanges, neutrophils, and dendritic.
  2. Pinocytosis
    A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
  3. Vacuole
    A cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  4. Mitochondria
    cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
  5. Chloroplast
    organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
  6. Cytoskeleton
    network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
  7. Centrioles
    structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division.
  8. Flagella
    structure used by protists for movement; produces movement in a wavelike motion
  9. Cilia
    short hairlike projection that produces movement
  10. Cell wall
    strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane
  11. Selectively permeable
    A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
  12. Integral proteins
    Typically a transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that completely spans the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
  13. Peripheral proteins
    A protein appendage loosely bound to the surface of a membrane and not embedded in the lipid layer.
  14. Transport proteins
    A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
  15. Diffusion
    The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated areas.
  16. Passive transport
    The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.
  17. Osmosis
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  18. Hypertonic solution
    the solution with a greater solute concentration.
  19. Hypotonic solution
    the solution with a lower solute concentration.
  20. Isotonic solution
    the same solute concentration as another solution.
  21. Active Transport
    The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
  22. Exocytosis
    The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
  23. Endocytosis
    The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intercellular vesicle.
  24. Exergonic reaction
    A spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy.
  25. Endergonic reaction
    A non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
  26. Phosphorylation
    the addition of a phosphate group to a melecule
  27. Activation energy
    The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called free energy activation.
  28. Substrate
    The reactant on which an enzyme works.
  29. Active site
    The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
  30. Fermentation
    A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
  31. Cellular Respiration
    The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
  32. Cristae
    An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
  33. Mitochondrial Matrix
    The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
  34. Redox Reaction
    A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
  35. Electron transport chain
    A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
  36. Glycolysis
    The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. The one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
  37. Citric acid cycle
    A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
  38. Aerobic
    Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
  39. Anaerobic
    Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisened by it.
  40. Alcohol Fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
  41. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
  42. Pyruvate
    The end product of glycolysis and may be metabolized to lactate or to acetyl CoA.
  43. Photosynthesis
    The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.
  44. Chlorophyll
    A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light rections, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
  45. Stomata
    Small openings in the epidermis of a plant that allows carbon dioxide, water and oxygen to diffues into and out of the leaf.
  46. Stroma
    The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
  47. Thylakoids
    The flattened membrane sacs inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
  48. Calvin Cycle
    The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
  49. Mitosis
    A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells.
  50. Cell Cycle
    An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two; composed of the M, G1, S and G2 phases.

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