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The study of hair.
What part of the hair is alive?
Cells of the hair bulb (the pupilla)
What is the primitive hair germ?
Basal layer of the epidermis.
What is the follicle
Tube like "pocket" called root sheath, out of which the hair will grow.
The shape of the follicle will determine the (a)__ of the hair shaft?
The diameter of the hair fiber will be the same as the diameter of the inside of the (a)__
What are the 3 shapes that hair generally exist in?
- 1) Round
- 2) Oval
- 3) Elliptical
Define Hair Root:
The portion if the hair that is inside the hair follicle under the skins surface.
Define the Hair Fiber, Shaft, or Strand:
The protion of the hair that extends above the skins surface.
Filled with cappillaries that supply nourishment to the cells around it.
List the 3 major layers of the hair:
- 1) Cuticle: Outer covering of the hair shaft made up of over lapping layers of transparent scales.
- 2) Cortex: 2nd layer consisting of unique protien structures (gives hair color/ pigment, & strength)
- 3) Medulla: Central core of the hair shaft also called the pith or marrow.
What is the technical term for the oil gland?
What is the Acid Mantle?
Sebum (oil) mixes with body's perpiration.
What is the functipn of the Acid Mantle?
It protects the cuticle of the hair fiber & maintains the acid balance of the hair & skin.
Where is the Arrector Pili Muscle?
Come from cells in the dermis that attach to the follicle just below the sebacous gland.
What is the function of the Arrector Pili Muscle?
Causes the hair to stand on end when a person is scared or cold.
What is Keratinisation?
The process whereby cells change their shape, dry out & form keratin protien, & then form hair fiber or strand & are no longer alive.
List the following terms in the order that the form the cortex, from largest to smallest.
Macrofibrils << Mirofibrils<< Protofibrals<< Amino Acid Chains
List the 3 stages of hair growth with a brief description:
- 1) Anagen: (Active stage) 90% of persons hair growth is in this stage, where each hair bulb has an attached root sheath.
- 2) Catogen: (Transitional stage) When cell division stops, this only lasts a few weeks.
- 3) Telogen: (Resting stage) Each hair bulb has no attached root sheath.
What is the avaerage percentage of hair that is in the Telogen stage?
What is the average growth rate of hair?
1/2" per month.
List the 3 items that effect hair growth.
- 1) Illness
- 2) Lack of necessary vitamins
- 3) Minerals
How often are eyelashes & eyebrows replaced?
Every 4-5 months
List the 3 factors that affect the behavior of hair.
- 1) Heredity
- 2) Environment
- 3) Products or Appliances
What pigment gives skin & hair its color?
(a)__ is formed by various (b)__ (melanin cells) that bundle together to create (c)__ (pigment protien complex)
- a) Melanin
- b) Melanocytes
- c) Melanosomes
Black/Brown in color
Red in color
What is Albinism?
When there is total lack of pigment in the skin & hair.
Mottled hair is (a)__(a)__
a) Grey hair
The degree of coursness or fineness in the hair is reffered to as:
Define the density of the hair:
The number of active hair follicles per square inch on the scalp.
What is Porosity?
The ability of the hair to absorb moisture, liquids, & chemicals.
What is Elasticity?
The ability of the hair to stretch & return to its original shape without breaking.
Normal dry hair is capable of being stretched about (a)__ of its length.
a) 1/5 (20%)
Normal wet hair is able to be stretched (a)__ to (a)__ of its length.
(1 of 9 Hair Disorders)
Abraded Hair (A-BRAID-ED Hair)
(2 of 9 Hair Disorders)
Fragilitis Crinium (FRAG-ILL-ITES CRY-NI-UM)
(3 of 9 Hair Disorders)
(4 of 9 Hair Disorders)
Pilica Polonica (PILL-I-KA PO-LAWN-I-KA)
Knotted Hair (Knodules):
(5 of 9 Hair Disorders)
Trichorhexis Nodosa (TRY-CORE-HEX-ES NO-DOE-SA)
Grayness/ Whitness of hair:
(6 of 9 Hair Disorders)
Alternating Bands of Grey & Dark hair:
(7 of 9 Hair Disorders)
Excessive Unwanted Hair:
(8 of 9 Hair Disorders)
Hypertrichosis (HYPER-TRY-CO-SIS) OR Hirsuties (HIRE-SUE-TES) OR Superfluous Hair
Beads or Nodes on hair shaft:
(9 of 9 Hair Disorders)
Dry Dandruff =
Pityriasis Capitis (PIT-I-RYE-A-SIS CAP-I-TIS)
Greasy/ Waxy Dandruff =
Pityriasis Steatoides (PIT-I-RYE-A-SIS STEE-A-TOY-DESS)
Ringworm of Scalp =
Tinea Capitis (TEA-NEE-A CAP-I-TISS)
Honey Comb Ringworm =
Tinea Favosa/Favus (TEA-NEE-A FAV-O-SA/ FAV-US)
Head Lice =
Pediculosis Capitis (PA-DIC-U-LOW-SIS CAP-I-TISS)
Average number of hairs on head:
- Red: 90,000
- Black: 108,000
- Brown: 110,000
- Blonde: 140,000
There is an average of (a)__ hairs to a sq. in. on the average head:
Baby fine, silky hair that is shed shortly after birth.
Short, fine non-pigmented hair found more often on women.
Predetermined follicles that produce long, think, pigmented hair.
What is the average amount of hair shed daily?
What is Alopecia?
Excessive hair loss
What can cause Alopecia?
Fungal & Bacterial infection OR inflamitory disease of the scalp.
What is Androgenetic Alopecia?
Combination of heredity, hormones, & age causes shrinking of follicles.
Does the number of follicels change with Androgeneic Alopecia?
NO, follicles just shrink.
Temporary hair loss at the end of pregnancy.
Sudden hair loss of hair in round or irregular patches.
Premature shedding of hair in resting stage from childbirth, shock, drugs, fever, etc...
Traction/ Traumatic Alopecia:
Hair loss due to repetive traction on hair by pulling or twisting.
What is the purpose of shampooing?
To cleanse scalp & hair by removing dirt, oils, & product.
What is the importance of draping?
To protect your clients skin & clothing.
Shampoos with high pH level can make the hair?
Dry & Brittle
Define: Soft Water & Hard Water.
- Soft Water: Rain water or water that has been chemically treated.
- Hard Water: Contains minerals & doesn't let shampoo lather freely.
What are the benefits of brushing?
Removes tangles, stimulates blood, removes dust, dirt & product build-up.
What is scalp massage?
Involoves manipulations preformed on scalp to relax the muscles & stimulate the blood.
List the 5 basic manipulation of massage:
- 1) Effleurage
- 2) Petrissage
- 4) Friction
- 5) Vibration
Why should you not brush the hair prior to chemical service?
To avoid the undisirable penitration of any chemicals into the skin. Brushing opens pores into the dermis.
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