Med Term Ch. 12

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Med Term Ch. 12
2011-11-26 11:41:23
Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System
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  1. external genitalia
    the sex, or reproductive, organs visibile on the outside of the body; also called genitals
  2. gestation
    length of time from conception to birth
  3. lactation
    production and release of milk by mammory glands
  4. orifice
    mouth; entrance or outlet of any anatomical structure
  5. puerperium
    time after childbirth that lasts approx. 6 weeks, during which the anatomical and physicological changes brought about by pregnancy resolve and a woman adjusts to the new or expanded responsibilities of motherhood and nonpregnant life
  6. Menstrual-Days 1-5
    uterine endometrium sloughs off because of hormonal stimulation; a process that is accompanied by bleeding. The detached tissue and blood are discharged thru the vagina as mentrual flow.
  7. Ovulatory-Days 6-14
    When menstration ceases, the endometrium begins to thicken as new tissue is rebuilt. As estrogen level rises, several ova begin to mature in the graafian follicles witho only one ovum reaching full maturity. At about the 14th day of the cycle, the graafian follicle ruptures, releasing the egg, a process called ovulation. The egg then leaves the ovary and travels down the fallopian tube toward the uterus.
  8. Postovulatory-Days 15-28
    The empty graafian follicle fills with a yellow material and is not called the corpus luteum. Secretions of estrogen and pregesterone by the corpus luteum stimulate the building of the endometrium in preperation for implantation of an embryo. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum begins to degenerate as estrogen and progesterone levels decline. With decreased hormone levels, the uterine lining begins to shed starting menstration
  9. amin/o
    amnion (amniotic sac)
  10. cervic/o
    neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
  11. colp/o
  12. galact/o
  13. gynec/o
    woman, female
  14. hyster/o
    uterus (womb)
  15. mamm/o
  16. men/o
    menses, menstruation
  17. metr/o
    uterus (womb); measure
  18. nat/o
  19. oophor/o
  20. perine/o
  21. salping/o
    tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
  22. -arche
  23. -cyesis
  24. -gravida
    pregnant woman
  25. -para
    to bear (offspring)
  26. -salpinx
    tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
  27. -tocia
    childbirth, labor
  28. -version
  29. ante-
    before, in front of
  30. primi-
  31. adnexa
    accessory parts of a structure
  32. atresia
    congential absence or closure or a normal body opening, such as the vagina
  33. choriocarcinoma
    malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy
  34. contraceptive diaphragm
    contraceptive device consisting of a hemisphere of thin rubber bonded to a flexible ring; inserted into the vagina together with spermicidal jelly or cream up to 2 hrs before sex so that sperm can't enter the uterus, thus preventing contraception
  35. corpus luteum
    ovarian scar tissue that results from rupturing of a folicle during ovulation and becomes a small yellow body that produces progesterone after ovulation
  36. dyspareunia
    occurance of pain during sexual intercourse
  37. endocervicitis
    inflammation of the mucous lining of the cervix uteri
  38. fibroids
    benign uterine tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue; also called leiomyomas (myomas) and fibromyomata uteri
  39. infertility
    inability or diminished ability to produce offspring
  40. hormonal contraception
    -oral contraceptive pills (OCPs_
    • use of hormones to suppress ovulation and prevent conception
    • -birth control pills containing estrogen and progesterone in varying proportions
  41. menarche
    beginning of menstrual function
  42. oligomenorrhea
    scanty or infrequent menstrual flow
  43. perineum
    regioin between the vulva and anus that constitutes pelvic floor
  44. puberty
    period during which secondary sex characteristics begin go develop and the capability of sexual reproduction is attained
  45. pyosalpinx
    pus in the fallopian tube
  46. retroversion
    turning or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ, such as the uterus, being tipped from its normal position
  47. sterility
    inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female
  48. vaginismus
    painful spasm of the vagina from contraction of its surrounding muscles
  49. viable
    capable of sustaining life; denotes a fetus sufficiently developed to live outside of the uterus
  50. abortion
    termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus
  51. abruptio placentae
    premature seperation of a normally situated placenta
  52. amnion
    membrane, continuous with and covering the fetal side of the placenta, that forms the outer surface of the umbilical cord
  53. breech presentation
    common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feet present first rather than the head
  54. Down syndrome, trisomy 21
    congenital condition characterized by physical malformations and some degree of mental retardation
  55. dystocia
    difficult labor, which may be produced by the large size of the fetus or the small size of the pelvic outlet
  56. eclampsia
    most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy
  57. ectopic pregnancy
    pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum doesn't reach the uterine cavity but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity, such as a fallopian tube, an ovary, the abdomen, or even the cervix uteri
  58. gravida
    pregnant woman
  59. multigravida
    woman who has been pregnant more than once
  60. multipara
    woman who has delivered more than one viable infant
  61. para
    woman who has given birth to one or more viable infants
  62. parturition
    process of giving birth
  63. pelvimetry
    measurement of pelvic dimensions to determine whether the head of the fetus will be able to pass thru the bony pelvis during the delivery process
  64. placenta previa
    condition in which the placenta is attached near the cervix and ruptures prematurely, with spotting as the early symptom
  65. primigravida
    woman pregnant for the first time
  66. primipara
    woman who has given birth to one viable infant, her fist child, indicated by the notation para I on the patient's chart
  67. puerperium
    period of 42 days after childbirth and expulsion of the placenta and membranes during which the reproductive organs usually return to normal
  68. amniocentesis
    transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance using a needle and syringe to remove amniotic fluid
  69. insufflation
    • delivery of pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber, or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or apply medication
    • -test for patency of the uterine tubes made by transuterine insufflation with CO2; also called Rubin test
  70. colposcopy
    visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colscope)
  71. laparoscopy
    visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope thru one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
  72. chronic villus sampling (CVS)
    sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects
  73. endometruim biopsy
    removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study
  74. papanicolaou (pap) test
    cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed from the cervix and vagina, usually obtained during routine pelvic examination
  75. mammography
    radiographic examination of the breast to screen fro breast cancer
  76. hysterosalpingography
    radiography of the uterus and uterine tubes (oviducts) following injection of a contrast medium
  77. Ultrasonography- Pelvic
    • -US of the pelvic region used to evaluate abnormalities in the female reproductive system as well as the fetus in the obstetric patient
    • -US of the pelvic area performed with a probe inserted into the vagina which provides sharper images of pathological and normal structures within the pelvis
  78. breast implant revision
    surgery designed to correct an unsuccessful procedure that has created a cosmetic problem or poses a health risk
  79. cerclage
    suturing the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion. The sutures are removed prior to delivery
  80. cesarean birth
    incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus; also called C-section
  81. colpocleisis
    surgical closure of the vaginal canal
  82. conization
    excision of a cone-shaped piece of tissue, such as mucosa of the cervix, for histolocial examination
  83. cordocentesis
    sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein and performed under ultrasound guidance
  84. cryosurgery
    process of freezing tissue to destroy cells; also called cryocautery
  85. dilation and curettage (D&C)
    Widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping of the uterine endometrium with a curette
  86. episiorrhaphy
    repair of a lacerated vulva ora n episiotomy
  87. episiotomy
    incision of teh perineum from the vaginal orifice usually done to prevent tearing of the tissue and to facilitate childbirth
  88. hysterectomy
    -total plus bilateral salpingooophorectomy
    • excision of the uterus
    • -hysterectomy where the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes remain
    • -hysterectomy where the cervix is removed but the ovaries and fallopian tubes remain; also called complete hysterectomy
    • -total (complete) hysterectomy, including uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
  89. intrauterine device
    plastic or metal object placed inside the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterine lining
  90. lumpectomy
    excision of a small primary breast tumor ("lump") and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it
  91. mammoplasty
    • surgical recontruction of the breast(s) to change the size, shape, or position
    • -breast enlargement to increase breast size of to replace one that has been surgically removed
    • -breast reduction to reduce the size of a large, pendulous breast
  92. mastectomy
    -total (simple)
    -modified radical
    • excision of the entire breast
    • -excision of the entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin; also called simple mastectomy
    • -excision of the entire breast, including the lymph nodes in the underarm (axillary dissection) (most common)
    • -excision of the entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chel wall muscles under the breast
  93. myomectomy
    excision of a myomatous tumor, generally uterine
  94. reconstructive breast surgery
    -tissue (skin) expansion
    • reconstruction of a breast that has been removed because of cancer or other disease
    • -common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaced witha more permanent implant
  95. transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap
    surgical creation of a skin flap using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen which is passed under the skin to the brease area. The abdominal tissue (flap) is shaped intoa anatural looking breast and sutured into place
  96. salpingo-oophorectomy
    excision of an ovary and fallopian tube
  97. tubal ligation
    procedure that ties (ligate) the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
  98. antifungals
    treat vaginal yeast infection by altering the yeast cell membrane or interfering with a metabolic process
  99. estrogens
    treat symptoms of menopause (hot flashes, vaginal dryness, fatigue) thru hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
  100. oral contraceptives
    prevent ovulation
  101. oxytocics
    induce labor at term by increasing the strenth and frequency of uterine contractions
  102. prosaglandins
    terminate pregnancy
  103. spermicides
    chemically destroy sperm by creating a highly acidic environment in the uterus
  104. review abbreviations in the book
    or else!