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Describe the respiratory membrane.
Thin, moist, highly vascularized membrane for transport of gases form medium to blood and vice versa.
What are the five structures involved as respiratory membranes in vertebrates?
- Integument ( Cutaneous respiration)
- Buccopharyngeal epithelium (lining of mouth and pharynx)
- Cloacal bursa
Where can external gills be found?
Protochordates, larval fishses, and larval amphibians.
Where can internal gills be found?
Describe the structure of a complete gill (holobranch).
Made up of gill bar and primary gill lamellae. Each primary gill lamella supports many secondary gill lamellae.
What is the function of complete gills?
Highly vascularized site of gas exchange.
Describe a countercurrent system.
Water flows over the gills in one direction and blood in the opposite eirection, which creates a diffusion gradient so oxygen transfer from water to blood in the gills is most efficient.
What is the function of the gas bladder (swim bladder) and in what can they be found?
It is a modified lung that serves a hydrostatic function. These are found in most bony fishes that inhabit open water.
What advantages does the gas bladder give to fishes?
Allows fish to maintain their postition in water with a minimum of muscular effort.
What is the function of the gas gland?
secretes oxygen from the blood into the swim bladder.
What is the function of the rete mirable (wonderful net)?
maintains oxygen in bladder, doesnt allow escape due to a countercurrent system.
What is the function of the oval?
Highly vascularized compartment that permits the release of oxygen from the swim bladder.