Chem1B-Electro/Nuclear

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Author:
victimsofadown
ID:
118970
Filename:
Chem1B-Electro/Nuclear
Updated:
2011-11-30 23:25:22
Tags:
Chem1B Electro Nuclear
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Chem1B-Electro/Nuclear
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  1. Definition of oxidation vs reduction
    • Oxidation: loss of electrons (increase in oxidation state)
    • Reduction: gain of electrons (decrease in oxidation state)
  2. Galvanic cell vs. Electrolytic cell
    • Galvanic cell: produces current from a spontaneous reaction
    • Electrolytic cell: consumes current to drive a nonspontaneous reaction
  3. Typical sketch of Galvanic cell
    • Left 1/2 cell: anode - oxidation (reducing agent)
    • Right 1/2 cell: cathode - reduction (oxidizing agent)
  4. Electrochemical shorthand notation
    • || indicates salt bridge
    • | separates phases
    • , separates different ions in the same phase
    • Anode on left, cathode on right in order of reaction
    • Be sure to include anode/cathode solids
  5. Electrochemistry Equations
    • oxidation = -E°reduction
    • cell = Eox + Ered
    • E = E° - (.0592/n)logQ
    • ΔG° = -nFE°cell (n= mol e- F = 96485 C/mol e-)
    • E = E° - (RT/nF)lnQ (n= mol e- F = 96485 C/mol e-)
    • V = J/C
  6. Types of voltaic cells
    • Primary batteries: redox reactions that cannot be easily reversed. Used up reactants = dead battery
    • Secondary batteries: rechargeable (use reversable redox reactions)
    • Fuel cell: reactants are supplied from external source
    • Acidic dry cell: expensive, non reachargeable, heavy, easily corroded
    • Lead storage battery: rechargeable, heavy (in cars)
  7. General Electrolytic cells + info
    • Anode: electons drawn from the + terminal of battery
    • Cathode: electrons forced toward the - terminal of battery
    • Amount of product is related to #electrons transferred (electrons treated as reactants)
    • # mol electrons that flow through cell depend on current/length of time (1 amp = 1 c/s, 1 mol e- = 96485 c, 96485c/mol e-)
  8. Types of nuclear rays/emissions
    • α emission: loss of 4/2He (loss of 4 neutrons, 2 protons)
    • β emission: loss of 0/-1 β (gain of 1 proton)
    • γ emission: loss of 0/0 γ (no change)
    • positron emission: loss of 0/1 β (loss of one proton)
    • electron capture: gain of 0/-1 e (product side -> loss of 1 proton)
  9. Kinetics of Radioactive decay
    • All are first order
    • Rate = kN (N= # radioactive nuclei)
    • t1/2 = .693/k
    • ln(N1/N0) = -kt = ln(rate1/rate0)
  10. Half life of C-14
    5730 years
  11. Mass defect and binding energy
    • 1 MeV = 1.602x10-13 J
    • 1 amu of mass defect = 931.5 MeV
    • Mass defect = n(mass proton) + m(mass neutron) - (mass total)
    • Binding energy = mass defect/# of nucleons

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