Med Terms ch. 11 and 12

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  1. filtrate
    • fluid that passes from teh blood through the capillary walls of the glomerli of the kidney
    • similar to plasma but with less protein.
  2. nitrogenous wastes
    • products of cellular metabolism that ontain nitrogen
    • include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, and ammonia
  3. peritoneum
    serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
  4. cystoscope
    instrument for examining the bladder
  5. cysto/o
  6. vesic/o
  7. vesicocele
    • hernia of the bladder aka cystocele
    • may lead to incomplete emptying of the bladder
  8. lith/o
    stone, calculus
  9. lithotripsy
    crushing of a stone
  10. meat/o
    opening, meatus
  11. meatomy
    • incision of the meatus
    • performed to relieve stenosis of the urethra, which may inhibit the proper passage of urine or semen
  12. nephropexy
    fixation of kidney
  13. pyelo/o
    renal pelvis
  14. pyeloplasty
    surgical repair of the renal pelvis
  15. urolith
    stone in urinary stract
  16. ureterectasis
    dilation of ureter
  17. urethrostenosis
    narrowing or stricture of the urethra
  18. balan/o
    glans penis
  19. epididymotomy
    incision of the epididymis
  20. orch/o
  21. orchi/o
  22. orchitis
    inflammation of testes
  23. orchidoptosis
    downward displacement of the testes
  24. testectomy
    excision of a testis
  25. -cele
    sweling, hernia
  26. varic/o
    dilated vein
  27. varicocele
    • swelling of a dilated vain
    • variocle is a dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord, the structure that spports the testicles
  28. vasectomy
    • removal of all or part of the vas deferens
    • vilateral vasectomy is a to produce sterility inthe male
  29. vesiculitis
    inflammation of the seminal vesicle
  30. azot/o
    nitrogenous compounds
  31. azotemia
    nitrogenous compounds in the blood
  32. crypo/o
  33. cryptorchidism
    • conditino of hidden testes aka cryptochism
    • failure of testes to descend into the scrotum; usually a congenital disorder
  34. nocturia
    • excessive and frequent urination after going to bed
    • associated with prostate disease, uti, and uncontrolled diabetes
  35. olig/o
  36. oligosermia
    decreseased production of sperm
  37. pyorrhea
    flow or discharge of pus
  38. py/o
  39. lithogenesis
    forming or producing stones
  40. -spadias
    slit, fissure
  41. nypospadiaslithiasis
    • a fissure under the penisabnormal condtion of stones or calculi
    • a congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the underside of the glans penis instead of te tip
  42. dialysis
    • separatino across
    • renal dialysis is a procedure that uses a membrane to seperate and selectively remove waste products from blood when kidneys are unable to complete this function
  43. retropieritoneal
    pertaining to behind the peritoneum
  44. azotemia
    retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds in the blood; aka uremia
  45. bladder neck obstruction
    • blockage at base of bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
    • BNO can be caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder stones, bladder tumors, or tumors in the pelvic cavity
  46. chronic renal failure
    • kidneys begin to lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with normal dieary intake
    • result of decreased numbers of functioning nephrons in the kidneys
  47. end-stage renal disease
    condition in which kidney function is permanately lost
  48. enuresis
    • involuntary discharge of urine; aka incontinence
    • enuresis at night called nocturnal enuresis
    • during teh day called diurnal enuresis
  49. fistula
    • abnormal passage from a holllow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
    • most common urinary fistula is the vesicovaginal fistula
  50. hesitancy
    involuntary delay in initiating urination
  51. hydronephrosis
    abnormal dilation of the renal pelivs adn the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
  52. nephrotic syndrome
    • loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased pereability of the glomerular membrane
    • hypoproteinemia, edem, and hy[erlipidemia commony associated with nephrotic syndrome
  53. polycystic kidney disease
    inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develp in the kidneys
  54. vesicoureteral reflux
    disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter adn bladder or obstruction in the ureter
  55. Wilms tumor
    rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
  56. aspermia
    • failure to form or ejaculate semen
    • don't confuse with azoospermia, which is absence of sperm in the ejaculate
  57. balanitis
    • inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis
    • uncircumcised men with poor personal hygiene are prone to this disorder
  58. azoospermia
    absence of sperm in the ejaculate
  59. epispadias
    malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
  60. hydrocele
    • accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes adn associated structures
    • common in male newborns but usually resolves in the first year
  61. hydospadias
    developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis, or in extreme cases, on the perineum
  62. phimosis
    stenosis or narrowing or preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over teh glans penis
  63. variocele
    swelling and distesion of veins of the spermatic cord
  64. digital rectal examinatino (DRE)
  65. asseses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormally firm areas that might indicate cancer
    • the physician inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum.
    • in males, also evaluateds teh size of prostate
  66. electromyography
    • measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in teh rectum and urethra
    • determines whether incontinence is due to weak muscles or other causes
  67. testicular self exam
    • for abnormal lumps or swellings in the scrotal sac
    • testicular cancer is the number 1 cancer killer in men ages 20-30
  68. cystoscopy
    endoscopy of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps
  69. nephroscopy
    • endoscopy of the kidneys that visulaizes and irrigates the kidney
    • nephroscope is passed thorugh a small incision made in the renal pelivs.
    • kidney pahtology and congenital deformities may be observed
  70. blood urea nitrogen
    • test that determines the amount of urea nitrogen present in a blood sample
    • because urea is cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys, the BUN test is used as an indicator of kidney function
  71. culture and sensitivity
    test that determines the causative orgaism of a disease and how the organism responds to various antibiotics
  72. prostate-specific antigen
    blood test used to detect prostatic disorder, esp. prostatic cancer
  73. cystometrography
    • procedure that asses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stagesof filling using saline adn a contrast medium introduced into teh bladder through a catheter
    • primary test used to investigate stress incontinence and urge incontinence
  74. intravenous pyelogrpahy
    • radioraphic exam of the kidneys and urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; aka excretory urography
    • detects kidney stones, enlarged prostate, internal injuries after an accident or trauma and tumors in the kidneys, ureters and bladder
  75. kidney, ureter, bladder radiography
    • determine location, size and shape of thekidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and to identify abnormalities of the urinary system
    • identifies stones and calcified areas and does not require a contrast medium
  76. voiding cystourethrography
    • radiological exam of the bladder and urethra performed before, durig, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
    • VCUG is performed to detemrine the cause of repeated bladder infections or stress incontinence and to identify congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the bladder and urethra
  77. hemodialysis
    method of removing waste from the blood by shunting it from the body, passing it through an artificial kidney machine where it is filtered adn then returning the dialyzed blood to the patient's body
  78. peritoneal
    • removal of toxic substances from teh body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm sterile chemical solution
    • the peritoneal avity is used as teh dialyzing membrane
  79. circumcision
    removal of all or part of prepuce of the penis
  80. nephropexy
    fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
  81. orchidectomy
    • removal of one or both testes
    • for serious disease or injury to teh testes or to control cancer of the prostate
  82. transurethral resection of the prostate
    clip away at the prostate gladn to remove the obstruction and flushing out the chips adn sending them for analysis to detect possible evidence of cancer
  83. antibiotics
    • treat bacterial infections of urinary tract
    • ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim
  84. antispasmodics
    • decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, allowing normal empying of the bladder
    • bladder spasms can result from such conditions as uti and catheterization
    • oxybutynin
  85. diuretics
    furosemide, spironolactone
  86. androgens
    testosterone base and testosterone cypionate
  87. anti-impotence agents
    • treat erectile dysfunction
    • sildenafil citrate and vardenafil
  88. external genetalia
    • female= vulva
    • male= penis, scrotum, testicles
  89. orifice
    mouth; entrance or outlet of any anatomical struture
  90. puerperium
    time after childbirth that lasts approx 6 weeks, during which the anatomical and physiological changes brought about by pregnancy resolve and a woman adjusts to the new or expanded responsibilities of motherhood and nonpregnant life
  91. menstrual phase
    • days 1-5
    • endometrium sloghs off
  92. ovulatory phase
    • days 6-14
    • menstruation ceases
    • endometrium begins to thicken
    • as a result, estrogen level rises
    • several ova begin to mature with only one reaching maturity
    • at about day 14, the grafian follicle ruptures, and the egg travels down the fallopian tube toward the uterus
  93. postovulatory phase
    • days 15-28
    • empty grafian follicle becomes corpus luteum
    • estrogen and estrogen secretions stimulate the building of the endometrium to get ready for implantation
    • if implantation does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates as est and progest levels decline
  94. colp/o
  95. colposcopy
    visual exam of the vagina
  96. galact/o
  97. galactopoiesis
    production of milk
  98. lactogen
    • forming or producing milk
    • lactogen refers to any stbstance that stimulates milk production, such as a hormone
  99. gynec/o
    woman, female
  100. hyster/o
  101. metri/o
  102. endometrial
    pertaining to the lining of the uterus
  103. mammogram
    radiographyof teh breast
  104. mastopexy
    • surgical fixation of the breasts
    • reconstructive, cosmetic surgery to affix sagging breasts
  105. menorrhagia
    • bursting forth of the menses
    • an excessive amount of menstrual flow over a longer duration than normal
  106. metr/o
    uterus; measure
  107. metroptosis
    prolapse or downward displacement of the uterus
  108. nat/o
  109. oophor/o
  110. ovariorrhexis
    rupture of an ovary
  111. oophoroma
    ovarian tumor
  112. perineorrapy
    • suture of the perineum
    • to repair an episiotomy or a laceration that occurs during delivery of the fetus
  113. salping/o
  114. salpingoplasty
    surgical repair of a fallopian tube
  115. arche
  116. -cyesis
  117. pseudocyesis
    false pregnancy
  118. -gravida
    pregnant woman
  119. multigravida
    woman who has been pregnant more than once
  120. -para
    to bear offspring
  121. nullipara
    woman who has never produced a viable offspring
  122. -salpinx
  123. hemosalpinx
    • blood in a fallopian tube; aka hematosalpinx
    • commonly assoc. with a tubal pregnancy
  124. -tocia
    childbirth, labor
  125. dystocia
    difficult childbirth
  126. retroversion
    • tipping or turning back of an organ
    • retroversion of the uterus occurs in one of every four otherwise healthy women
  127. anteversion
    tipping or turning of an organ forward of an organ
  128. dysmenorrhea
    painful menstruation
  129. endometritis
    inflammation of tissue within the uterus
  130. multipara
    woman who has delivered more than one viable infant
  131. primigravida
    woman during her first pregnancy
  132. adnexa
    • accessory parts of a structure
    • adnexa uteri are the ovaries and fallopian tubes
  133. atresia
    congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening, such as the vagina
  134. choriocarcinoma
    • malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy
    • unknown cause may occur after pregnancy or abortion
  135. dyspareunia
    occurence of pain during sexual intercourse
  136. endocervicitis
    inflammation of the mucous lining of the cervix uteri
  137. fibroids
    • benign uterine tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue
    • aka leiomyomas, myomas, and fibromyomata uteri
  138. female perineum
    region between the vulva and the anus that constitutes teh pelvic floor
  139. pyosalpinx
    pus in the fallopian tube
  140. baginismus
    painful spasm of the vagina from conraction of its surrounding muscles
  141. abruptio placentae
    premature separation of a normally situated placenta
  142. amnion
    • membrane, continuous with and covering the fetal side of the placenta, that forms the outer surface of the umbilical cord
    • fetus is suspended in amniotic fluid
  143. breech presentation
    common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feet present first rather than the head
  144. dystochia
    difficult labor, which may be produced by the large size of the fetus or small size of the pelvic outlet
  145. eclampsia
    • most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy
    • signs include high bp, edema, convulsions, renal dysfunction, proteinuria, and in severe cases, coma
  146. ectopic pregnancy
    pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum does not reach the uterine cavity but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity such as a fallopian tube, an ovary, the abdomen, or even the cervix uteri
  147. multigravida
    woman who has been pregnant more than once
  148. multipara
    woman who has deliverd more than one viable infant
  149. parturition
    process of giving birth
  150. placenta previa
    • condition in which the placenta is attached near the cervix and ruptures prematurely, which spotting as the early symptom
    • prevention of hemorrhage may necessitate a cesarean delivery
  151. insufflation
    • delivery of pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber, or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or apply medication
    • to increase the distance between structures so physican can see more clearly adn better diagnose possible disorders
  152. tubal
    test for patency of the uterine tubes made by transuterine insufflation with co2; aka Rubin test
  153. colposcopy
    visual exam of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument
  154. laparoscopy
    visual exam of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisinos in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
  155. chronic villus sampling
    • sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects
    • obtained through a catheter inserted into the uterus
  156. endometrial biopsy
    • removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study
    • used in fertility assesment to confirm ovulation and as a diagnostic tool to determine teh cause of dysfuctional and postmenopausal bleeding
  157. Papanicolaou (Pap) test
    • cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed from the cervix and vagina
    • to screen for and diagnose cervical cancer
  158. mammography
    radiographic exam of the breast to screen for breast cancer
  159. hysterosalpingography
    • radiography of the uteru and uteine tubes following injection of contrast medium
    • used to detemine pathology in the uterine cavity, evaluate tubal patency, and determines the cause of infertility
  160. cerclage
    • sutring the cerix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion. sutures are removed prior to delivery
    • aka "purse string" procedure
  161. colpoeisis
    surgical closure of the vaginal canal
  162. conization
    excision of a cone-shaped piece of tissue, such as mucosa of the cervix, for histological examination
  163. cordocentesis
    • sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein and performed under ultrasound guidance
    • identify hemolytic diseases or genetic abnormalities
  164. cryosurgery
    • process of freezing tissue to destroy cells
    • used for chronic cervical infections and erosions becase offending organisms may be entrenched in cervical cells and glands. The process destroys these infected areas and, in the healing process, normal cells are replenished
  165. dilation and curettage
    widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping of the uterine endometrium with a curette
  166. episiorraphy
    repair of a lacerated vulva or an episotomy
  167. episiotomy
    incision of the perineum from the vaginal orifice usually done to prevent tearing of the tissue and to facilitate childbirth
  168. subtotal hysterectomy
    cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes remain
  169. total hysterectomy
    cervix is removed but the ovaries and fallopian tubes remain
  170. total plus bilateral salpingooophorectomy hysterectomy
    removal of uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
  171. intrauterine device
    plastic or metal object placed inside the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg in teh uterine lining
  172. augmentation
    breast enlargement to increase breast size or to replace one that has been surgically removed
  173. mastectomy
    excisiono f the entire breath
  174. total mastectomy
    • excision of entire breast, nipple, areola, and involved overlying skin
    • lymph nodes are removed only if they are included in teh breast tissue being removed
  175. modified radical mastectomy
    • excision of entire breast including lymph nodes in the underarm
    • most common
  176. radical mastectomy
    excision of enire breat, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast
  177. myomectomy
    excision of a myomatous tumor, generally uterine
  178. tissue expansion
    common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size,and the expander is then placed with a more permanant implant
  179. transverse rectus abdominis muscle flap
    surgical creation of a skin flap using skin and fat from lower hal fof the abdomomen which is pased under the skin to the breast area
  180. salpingo-oophorectomy
    • excision of an ovary and fallopian tube
    • usually identified as right, left, or bilateral
  181. tubal ligation
    procedure that ties the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
  182. antifungals
    • treat yeast infection by altering yeast cell membrane or interfering with a metabolic process
    • miconazole, nystatin
  183. estrogens
    • treat symptoms of menopause
    • conjugated estrogens
  184. oral contraceptives
    • prevent ovulation
    • desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol
    • ethinyl estradiol/norgestrel
  185. oxytocics
    • induce labor at term by increasing the strength and frequency of uteine contractions and also used postpardom to control bleeding after expulsion of placenta
    • oxytocin
  186. prostaglandins
    • terminate pregnancy
    • can cause the uterus to contract strongly enough to spontaneously abort a fetus
    • dinoprostone, mifepristone
  187. spermicides
    • chemically destroy sperm by creating a highly acidic environment in the uterus
    • nonoxynol 9, octoxynol 9
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Med Terms ch. 11 and 12
med terms ch. 11 and 12
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