The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
The collective body of genetic information in an organism is called
Characteristics of organisms are governed by units of inheritance called ___
Each trait is controlled by two forms of a gene called ____
When alleles are nonidentical, the _______ allele masks the ________ allele.
A reproductive cell contains one gene for each trait. This cell is called...
The pairs of genes are _____ during gamete formation.
Genes on the same chromosome are part of the same _______
Genes that are on the same chromosome do not ____ ______.
Homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes can exchange pieces during ________ or _______.
Crossing over; genetic recombination
Whats the purpose of Frequency of recombination?
A nucleotide has a __________, a ____, and ___________.
phosphate, sugar and either a pyrimidine or purine nitrogenous base
thymine and cytosine
adenine (A) and guanine (G)
–The DNA molecule is a _____ helix.
•DNA is composed of ____chains of nucleotides.
•The two chains spiral around each other forming a pair of right-hand _____.
•The two chains are antiparallel or parallel?.
•The sugar-phosphate backbone is located on the _____ of the molecule.
•The bases are ____ the helix.
•The two DNA chains are held together by ______ between each base.
•The double helix is ___nm wide.
•_________ are always paired with _____.
•Only A-__ and C-__ pairs fit within double helix..
•The double helix makes a turn every 10 residues.
•The two chains are _______ to each other.
- • hydrogen bonds
- •Pyrimidines; purines
- •A-T; C-G
•Implications of the Watson-Crick Proposal
–_____ of genetic information.
–Replication and inheritance.
–______ of the genetic message.
–DNA that is more compact than its relaxed counterpart is called supercoiled.
–Underwound DNA is _____ supercoiled, and overwound DNA is ______ supercoiled.
–_________ supercoiling plays a role in allowing chromosomes to fit within the cell nucleus.
- -negatively; positively
–________ enzymes change the level of ____________.
–Cells contain a variety of topoisomerases.
•Type I – Explain
•Type II – Explain
- -Topoisomerase; DNA supercoiling
- •Type I – change the supercoiled state by creating a transient break in one strand of the duplex.
- •Type II – make a transient break in both strands of the DNA duplex.
What is DNA denaturation?
–DNA is able to separate into two strands.
–Renaturation or reanneling is when _______-stranded DNA molecules are capable of _________.
–Reanneling has led to the development of __________in which complementary strands of nucleic acids from different sources can form _______.
- -single; reassociating
- -nucleic acid hybridization; hybrid molecules
–The rate of renaturation of DNA from bacteria and viruses depends on the ______________
size of their genome
•Highly Repeated DNA Sequences – represent about ____% of total DNA.
–Satellite DNAs – ____________
–Minisatellite DNAs – __________
•basis of DNA fingerprinting
–Microsatellite DNAs – ___________
•implicated in genetic disorders
- • 1-10%
- -short sequences that tend to evolve very rapidly
- -unstable and tend to be variable in the population
- -shortest sequences and typically found in small clusters