Cell bio Ch 10

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Cell bio Ch 10
2011-11-26 00:57:22
Cell bio 10

Cell bio ch 10
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  1. The collective body of genetic information in an organism is called
  2. Characteristics of organisms are governed by units of inheritance called ___
  3. Each trait is controlled by two forms of a gene called ____
  4. When alleles are nonidentical, the _______ allele masks the ________ allele.
    dominant; recessive
  5. A reproductive cell contains one gene for each trait. This cell is called...
  6. The pairs of genes are _____ during gamete formation.
  7. Genes on the same chromosome are part of the same _______
    linkage group
  8. Genes that are on the same chromosome do not ____ ______.
    assort independently
  9. Homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes can exchange pieces during ________ or _______.
    Crossing over; genetic recombination
  10. Whats the purpose of Frequency of recombination?
    indicates distance
  11. A nucleotide has a __________, a ____, and ___________.
    phosphate, sugar and either a pyrimidine or purine nitrogenous base
  12. Two pyrimidines:
    thymine and cytosine
  13. Two purines:
    adenine (A) and guanine (G)
  14. –The DNA molecule is a _____ helix.
    •DNA is composed of ____chains of nucleotides.
    •The two chains spiral around each other forming a pair of right-hand _____.
    •The two chains are antiparallel or parallel?.
    •The sugar-phosphate backbone is located on the _____ of the molecule.
    •The bases are ____ the helix.
    • -Double
    • •two
    • •helices
    • •antiparallel
    • •outside
    • •inside
  15. •The two DNA chains are held together by ______ between each base.
    •The double helix is ___nm wide.
    •_________ are always paired with _____.
    •Only A-__ and C-__ pairs fit within double helix..
    •The double helix makes a turn every 10 residues.
    •The two chains are _______ to each other.
    • • hydrogen bonds
    • •2nm
    • •Pyrimidines; purines
    • •A-T; C-G
    • •complementary
  16. •Implications of the Watson-Crick Proposal
    –_____ of genetic information.
    –Replication and inheritance.
    –______ of the genetic message.
    • -Storage
    • -Expression
  17. –DNA that is more compact than its relaxed counterpart is called supercoiled.
    –Underwound DNA is _____ supercoiled, and overwound DNA is ______ supercoiled.
    –_________ supercoiling plays a role in allowing chromosomes to fit within the cell nucleus.
    • -supercoiled
    • -negatively; positively
    • -negative
  18. –________ enzymes change the level of ____________.

    –Cells contain a variety of topoisomerases.
    •Type I – Explain
    •Type II – Explain
    • -Topoisomerase; DNA supercoiling
    • •Type I – change the supercoiled state by creating a transient break in one strand of the duplex.
    • •Type II – make a transient break in both strands of the DNA duplex.
  19. What is DNA denaturation?
    –DNA is able to separate into two strands.
  20. •DNA Renaturation
    –Renaturation or reanneling is when _______-stranded DNA molecules are capable of _________.
    –Reanneling has led to the development of __________in which complementary strands of nucleic acids from different sources can form _______.
    • -single; reassociating
    • -nucleic acid hybridization; hybrid molecules
  21. –The rate of renaturation of DNA from bacteria and viruses depends on the ______________
    size of their genome
  22. •Highly Repeated DNA Sequences – represent about ____% of total DNA.
    –Satellite DNAs – ____________
    –Minisatellite DNAs – __________
    •basis of DNA fingerprinting
    –Microsatellite DNAs – ___________
    •implicated in genetic disorders
    • • 1-10%
    • -short sequences that tend to evolve very rapidly
    • -unstable and tend to be variable in the population
    • -shortest sequences and typically found in small clusters