The collective body of genetic information in an organism is called
Characteristics of organisms are governed by units of inheritance called ___
Each trait is controlled by two forms of a gene called ____
When alleles are nonidentical, the _______ allele masks the ________ allele.
A reproductive cell contains one gene for each trait. This cell is called...
The pairs of genes are _____ during gamete formation.
Genes on the same chromosome are part of the same _______
Genes that are on the same chromosome do not ____ ______.
Homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes can exchange pieces during ________ or _______.
Crossing over; genetic recombination
Whats the purpose of Frequency of recombination?
A nucleotide has a __________, a ____, and ___________.
phosphate, sugar and either a pyrimidine or purine nitrogenous base
thymine and cytosine
adenine (A) and guanine (G)
–The DNA molecule is a _____ helix.
•DNA is composed of ____chains of nucleotides.
•The two chains spiral around each other forming a pair of right-hand _____.
•The two chains are antiparallel or parallel?.
•The sugar-phosphate backbone is located on the _____ of the molecule.
•The bases are ____ the helix.
•The two DNA chains are held together by ______ between each base.
•The double helix is ___nm wide.
•_________ are always paired with _____.
•Only A-__ and C-__ pairs fit within double helix..
•The double helix makes a turn every 10 residues.
•The two chains are _______ to each other.
• hydrogen bonds
•Implications of the Watson-Crick Proposal
–_____ of genetic information.
–Replication and inheritance.
–______ of the genetic message.
–DNA that is more compact than its relaxed counterpart is called supercoiled.
–Underwound DNA is _____ supercoiled, and overwound DNA is ______ supercoiled.
–_________ supercoiling plays a role in allowing chromosomes to fit within the cell nucleus.
–________ enzymes change the level of ____________.
–Cells contain a variety of topoisomerases.
•Type I – Explain
•Type II – Explain
-Topoisomerase; DNA supercoiling
•Type I – change the supercoiled state by creating a transient break in one strand of the duplex.
•Type II – make a transient break in both strands of the DNA duplex.
What is DNA denaturation?
–DNA is able to separate into two strands.
–Renaturation or reanneling is when _______-stranded DNA molecules are capable of _________.
–Reanneling has led to the development of __________in which complementary strands of nucleic acids from different sources can form _______.
-nucleic acid hybridization; hybrid molecules
–The rate of renaturation of DNA from bacteria and viruses depends on the ______________
size of their genome
•Highly Repeated DNA Sequences – represent about ____% of total DNA.
–Satellite DNAs – ____________
–Minisatellite DNAs – __________
•basis of DNA fingerprinting
–Microsatellite DNAs – ___________
•implicated in genetic disorders
-short sequences that tend to evolve very rapidly
-unstable and tend to be variable in the population
-shortest sequences and typically found in small clusters