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How many energy calories in one gram of fat?
1 gm fat = 9 kcals
What is the main enzyme that mobilizes stored fat and how?
Hormone Sensitive Lipase is an enzyme that releases fatty acids in adipose tissues by hydrolysis
How is Hormone Sensitive Lipase activated?
What is the pathway that activates it?
- Via Epinephrine, such when exercising, which acts as a first messenger when attached to the receptor of the cell.
- Then Adenylyl cyclase is activated which in turn prompts activation of cyclic AMP.
- This is turn activates Active Protein Kinase, which phosphorylates, thus activating Hormone Sensitive Lipase
What is the energy source for 70-80% of the heart's energy?
70-80% of the energy utilized by the heart is from Fatty Acids
What happens to the free fatty acid released from the adipose tissue?
It is attached to the albumin and carried into the blood stream to skeletal muscle, the brain, or other other tissues to be oxidized for energy source
What does 3,2 Enyoyl Isomerase do?
Take cis 3,4 bond and isomerise to trans 2,3 bond
What does 2,4 dienoyl CoA reductase do?
For linoleic acid, reduces bond between C4-C5
How are extra long fatty acids degraded?
What is "convenience" of this compared to regular Beta oxidation
No carnitine shuttle required
Which compound prompts ketone body formation after 3 days starvation state?
Accumulation of Acetyl CoA
What is enzyme for reaction adding 2 acetyl CoA's and Fatty acyl CoA?
HMG CoA Synthase
What are three products of ketone synthesis?
- 3 Hydroxybutyrate
What is the enzyme needed to break down Acetoacetate to Acetoacetyl CoA?
Where does this take place?
In the muscle and peripheral tissues