psychology test 3 module 2 thinking language intelligence
Thinking, Language, & Intelligence
a person’s capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively.
Define General Intelligence.
if you do well in one area you have a tendency to do well in otherareas
Define Multiple Intelligences.
states that people can have great ability in onearea more than in other areas – that there isn’t some common factor that underlies differentabilities as in the general intelligence perspective.
Define fluid intelligence.
ability to reason quickly and abstractly (declines w/age)
Define crystallized inteligence
knowledge that accumulates, verbal abilities (stable orincreases w/age)
Define Analytical Intelligence
focuses on the mental components involved in analyzing information to solveproblems
Define creative intelligence
focuses on ability to adapt to novel experiences and the ability of formulatenew ideas
Define practical intelligence.
takes into account how successful people are in facing demands of their every day environment
provides a basis for comparing test scores. Get scores from a representative sample of test takers and this becomes the standard to whichother scores are compared.
test yields consistent results
when a test measures exactly what it is supposed to measure
Define infant-directed speech
adults speaking slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and loudness that attracts infants more than adult like speech
the rise and fall in pitch begins to appear in the babbling – forming two distinct sentence type patterns
Define Declarative (in regards to intonation)
pitch first rises and then falls toward end of sentence
Define Question (in regards to intonation)
pitch is level and then rises toward the end of sentence
apply rules even when the application results in an error
grammatical rules that indicate how words and phrases can be combined to form sentences
The mental activity that is associated with thinking,knowing, and remembering information
Organizing thoughts into categories.
A practical use of a concept.
requires a group of elements be rearranged or recombined in a way that will satisfy a certain objective.
Define inducing structure
identifying the relationship that exists among elements which can lead to a solution
consists of an initial state, a goal state, and then a series of methods for changing the initial state into the goal state
a rule which if followed exactly guarantees a correct solution
more simplistic, but more error-prone method
a sudden awareness of the solution
Define Confirmation Bias
A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions.
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
Define Functional Fixedness
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Define Representativeness Heuristic
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; many lead one to ignore other relevant information
Define Availability Heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are possible.
The tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments.
The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
Define Belief Perseverence
Clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Define Chronological Age
The physical age of a person
Define Mental Age
The Development age of the brain.
State the two views of intelligence.
State the two intellectual abilities claimed by Cattell
State the seven intellectual abilities claimed by Gardner
State the three goals of constructing an intelligence test.
State the three intellectual abilities claimed by Sternberg.
List the two items that come with intoation.
List the three parts of syntax
Actor + Action
Action + Object
Possessor + Possession
State the two parts of concepts
List the three types of problems to solve.
List the three ways to solve problems.
List the three effects of people who err on the side of overconfidence
Live more happily
Find it easier to make tough decisions
Seem more credible than those who lack self-confidence
Identify Lewis Terman
Professor at Stanford, CA, who saw intelligence testing as a means to measure inherited intelligence
Identify Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon
identified French school children who would needspecial attention – scholastically
Identify Willliam Stern.
Determined the intelligence quotient.
Identify Peter Wilson.
Conducted an experiment to demistrate confirmation bias.
Identify Calude Steele
Studied labeling and stereotypes with respect to intelligence. Through an experiment involivng the "threat" between men and women who perform differently, he found that when removing the threat, the scores evened out. Thus he coined the term stereotype threat
The __________________ is usually thought of as general intelligence and primarily focuses on _________.
One ability view
General intelligence is also known as the _________.
Multiple intelligences is also known as the __________.
many abilities view
Sternberg’s statement of three intellectual abilites is known as the _________
The intellegence quotent is ____________________________________________.
(mental age / chronological age) * 100
IQ is no longer computed because it does not work with ________.
In modern times, mental abiliites is assessed compared to all test takers ______________, with the average score being _______.
at that age
Standarization is also called _________.
determining the norms
Language development begins ________ after the infant is born.
At age 3, children learn to ________________________________ and ______________________________.
make plurals by adding "s" to nouns.
Form the past tense by adding "ed" to verbs.
Concepts are ordered with ____________ first (examples are ________ and ________) and _______ second.
1.Concepts are ordered with ____________ first
(exampes are ________ and ________) and _______ second.
Urge to seek information _________ our ideas is greter than the urge to seek information ______ our ideas.
Intuitive judgments are often __________, but are ______________ to bad judgments
__________________ influences many of our daily decisions.
The faster people ________ something, the more they expect it to _______.
_______________ can be used to influence decisions.
The main problem of testing is __________________.
Dependence on language
The neuroscience persepctive theory regarding the P3 brain wave pattern and intelligence is ____________________________.
the brain of a smarter person will have smaller P3 brain waves over time because it adjusts faster to the interceptions and absorbs new inputs more readily
Child Development: State what occurs by 3 months.
babies begin cooling - producing vowel-like sounds such as "ooooo" and "aaahhh"
Child Development: State what occurs by 4-5 months.
Babbling: Speech like sounds that have no meaning such as "dah" or "bah". Over nexr few months, it will become more elaborate.
Child Development: State what occurs by 7 months.
Child Development: State what occurs by 10 months.
Babies take on sounds that reflect the characteristics of the household language
Child Development: 1 year
Babies will begin to produce words (one word stage) that are meaningful, more purposeful. They will usually have consonant-vowel pairs
Child Development: 2 years
Babies move on to phrases comprised of a couple words and begin demonstrating syntax rules