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What are the 7 Characteristics of the vertebral column?
- 33 short bones
- 23 associated discs between vertebraes
- 7 cervical vertebrae
- 12 thoracic vertebrae
- 5 lumbar vertebrae
- 5 fused sacral vertebrae
- 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae
What are the 2 vertebral curves?
-convex or concave
-how are they formed?
-where are each located?
- Primary Curve (convex & kyphotic): Thorax & Sacral region--from birth
- Secondary Curve (concave & lordotic): Cervical & Lumbar region--forms from movement & gravitational pull
- union between the superior & inferior articular processes of the vertebrae
- Synovial Joint
- Prevent forward displacement of one vertebreae over another & participate in load bearing
In the hyperextended position, apophyseal joints bear which percentage of the load?
When is the highest amount of pressure in the facet joint? During which vertebral motion?
-during which other movement combination does the apophyseal joints bear a significant portion of the load?
- combined torsion, flexion & compression of the vertebrae
- -spine flexion & rotation
Which 5 ligaments support the posterior portion of the vertebral segment?
- Ligamentum Flavum: elastic ligament that connects adjacent vertebral arches longitudinally (laminae to laminae)
- Suprasinous & Interspinous Ligaments: run from spinaous process to spinous process & resist shear & forward bending of the spine
- Intertransverse Ligaments: connect transverse process to transverse process. (resists lateral trunk bending)
Where in the vertebrae does flexion occur?
primarily in the lumbar vertebrae through the first 50-60o and is moved into more flexion by a forward pelvic tilt.
Where int eh vertebrae does extension occur?
- First, posterior pelvic tilt
- Then, lumbar spine extension
Describe what happens when flexion is FIRST initiated?
-relationship of vertebrae
-which structures absorb the compressive forces
Top vertebrae slides forward on the bottom vertebrae and the vertebrae tilts, placing a compressive force on the anterior portion of the disc. Both ligaments and annulus fibers absorb the compressive forces created.
Where in the vertebrae does lateral flexion occur?
Mainly in the cervical and lumbar regions
Lateral Rotation of the vertebrae is often accompanied by which movement?
In which plane does side-to-side translation occur (gliding)
How does superior and inferior translation occur (axial distraction & compression) (which direction)
Which plane does anterior/posterior translation occur in?
In which plane & axis does side-to side rotation (tilting occur?
Frontal plane around an a-p axis
In which plane & axis does rotation occur?
Transverse plane around a vertical axis
In which plane & axis does a-p rotation (tilting) occur
Sagittal plane & frontal axis