H&S Chapter 8
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In its original form, the method of an imaginative construction and reconstruction of the person's past and present reality. The therapist (a) collects the reported reflections, (b) analyzes them, and then (c) interprets them to the patient.
The method of free association is labeled based on an apparently inaccurate translation from German, in which the term has the meaning of "free occurrences," as if the patient reproduces thoughts and images that "occur" in her freely. The patient is asked to make a chain of associations, starting from a word suggested by the therapist adn then naming anything that comes to mind.
Mostly repressed desires and memories of a person
A universal kind of energy, an instinctual and irrational determiner of both conscious and unconscious processes.
The irrational fear in men of loss of the genitals
The process by which patients shift emotions applicable to another person onto the psychoanalyst
The activities not open to direct conscious scrutiny but influencing conscous process and behavior. This was a complicated dynamic of wishes and drives fighting against restrictions, logic, and delays of gratification of these wishes.
The component of the psyche that makes compromises between the id and the environment and is guided by the reality principle. During an individual's development, the ego starts within the id but gradually changes to accept reason.
The demand that an instinctual need be immediately gratified
The realization of the demands of the environment and the adjustment of behavior to these demands
The repressed instinctual tendencies that lead toward destruction
Death wish (often labeled as death instinct or death drive)
Or death instinct, a collective name for all the instinctual tendencies that lead away from full expression of pleasure toward constriction, destruction, and death.
Or life instinct, all the tendencies that strive toward the integration of living substance. The psychic energy of this instinct was often called libido in psychoanalysis.
The component of the psyche that contains inborn biological drives (the death wish and life instinct); it seeks immediate gratification of its impulses.
The component of the psyche acting as the moral guide with unconscious features. This guide tells us what we should and should not do.
A person undergoing psychoanalysis; also, a therapeutic patient or client.
The term stands for a wide range of difficulties that become impediments. They can be physical or psychological. They appear at birth but may develop later in life.
In Adler's vocabulary, attempts to overcome the discomfort and negative experiences caused by their inferiority.
In Adler's view, an individual's vigorous exertion or effort to achieve security, improvement, control, and conquest.
Striving toward superiority
The desire, according to Adler, to be connected with other people.
In Adler's view, a technique for dealing with one's inadequacies and inferiorities and for gaining social status.
Style of Life
In Jung's theory, an impersonal layer in the human psyche, different from the individual unconscious, inherited and shared with other members of the species.
The content of the collective unconscious, which consists of images of the primordial (elemental, ancient) character. People, according to Jung, share similar ancestral experiences. These archetypes manifested in three universal ways: dreams, fantasies, and delusions.
The term used by Jung to distinguish his views from Freud.
The process of a person's psychological growth and awareness of his or her own individuality.
What was Jung and Freud's impact on psychology?
- Freud1. Made a contribution to personality theories by describing the id, ego, and superego. He became a successful therapist and popular commentator on social and cultural issues.
- 2. Approach to mental illness includes the method of free associations
- 3. Assumed that dreams represented wish fulfillment, or the symbolic attempt to realize an unfulfilled desire.
- 4. Adopted the concept of death wish as the repressed instinctual tendencies that lead toward destruction
- Jung1. Frequently called the "crown prince" of psychoanalysis.
- 2. Moved away from Freud (who mentored Jung) and criticized him.
- 3. Developed ideas of analytical psychology, collective unconscious, archetypes, and psychological types.
- 4. Early champion of cross-cultural psychology
What is the collective unconscious?
Jung's theory was the belief that there must be an impersonal layer in human psyche, different from the individual unconscious, which he called the collective unconscious. It is inherited and shared with other members of the species.
The content of the collective unconscious consists of archetypes, or images of the primordial character. People share similar ancestral experiences. The archetypes manifest in three universal ways: dreams, fantasies, and delusions. He belived that certain delusions reported by patients resembled mythological images of the past. Our ancestors accepted them, but today they are treated as abnormal symptoms.
What are Adler's views on inferiority?
Adler assumed that the body was a source of pain or dissatisfaction, rather than desires or pleasures accoring to Freud. One of Adler's central concepts is organ inferiority, which refers to the organs of the body, but ALSO to various sensory and physiological systems, including the nervous system. The term stands for a wide range of difficulties that become impediments. They can be physical or psychological. (E.g., child with mild learning disability may feel embarrased for being slow & suffer abuse from peers; thus learning disability is his organ inferiority).
The body signals to the brain that something is wrong or deficient. The body then needs to compensate for an emerging insufficiency and to find energy resources to address the problem.
Describe the two instincts according to Freud.
- Eros (Life Instinct)Sometimes referred to as sexual instincts, the life instincts are those that deal with basic survival, pleasure, and reproduction. These instincts are important for sustaining the life of the individual as well as the continuation of the species. While they are often called sexual instincts, these drives also include such things as thirst, hunger, and pain avoidance. The energy created by the life instincts is known as libido. Behaviors commonly associated with the life instinct include love, cooperation, and other prosocial actions.
- Thanatos (Death Instinct)Initially described in his book Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud proposed that “the goal of all life is death” (1920). He noted that after people experience a traumatic event (such as war), they often reenact the experience. He concluded that people hold an unconscious desire to die, but that this wish is largely tempered by the life instincts.In Freud’s view, self-destructive behavior is an expression of the energy created by the death instincts. When this energy is directed outward onto others, it is expressed as aggression and violence.
What are Freud's views on personality?
An individual's psyche is comprised of three levels (parts): id, ego, and superego
Id - the most primitive part of the personality. It contains inborn biological drives (the death wish and life instinct); it seeks immediate gratification of its impulses. The id, like unmanaged will, operates exclusively according to the pleasure principle. It represents a constant struggle between love and destruction.
Ego - makes compromises between the id and superego and is guided by the reality principle. During individual's development, ego starts within the id but gradually changes to accept reason. Not every feature of the id is conscious.
Superego - the moral guide with unconscious features. This guide tells us what we should and should not do.
What were the main disagreements between Jung and Freud?
- 1. Jung hesitant to embrace Freudian concept of sexuality and libido; instead he considered mental energy a better term.
- 2. Jung de-emphasized the importance of infantile sexuality & practically denounced the origin of neurosis.
- 3. Jung was critical about the Oedipus complex.
- 4. Jung downplayed the efficiency of psychoanalytic therapy.
- 5. Jung introduced his own analytical psychology, which incorporated ideas of Eastern philosophy, mysticsm, and spirituality.
- 6. Essentially, Jung moved away from Freud's theories and developed his own.
How was therapy conducted in the 19th century? What was the process like?
Therapy was conducted from a psychoanalytic standpoint. Patient symptoms were assumed to stem from a person's fantasies, dreams, or free associations. The process involved dream interpretation and free associations. Therapists paid particular attention to tranferences and was expected to be an excellent listener. During sessions, no topic should be avoided. The patient must say whatever comes to mind. The therapist must focus on everything that disturbs the progress of therapeutic work, including patient resistance and transference. The duration of therapy was usualy long-term.
Explain 3 main goals of Jung's therapy.
1. Goal 1: Teach patients how to learn their neurosis. They do not necessarily cure their own neurosis; exactly the opposite is true. Neurosis provides a cure to patient who acquire the skills to understand it. Freud tried to eliminate neurosis in patients, while Jung helped them to come to terms with it.
2. Goal 2: To balance restoration. Using the concept of energy conservation, Jung believed that mental energy in us is limited, and if we pursue one activity, other activities will receive less energy.
3. Goal 3: Individuation. This is not pursuing tangible results, such as getting into graduate school. It is the process of fulfilling an individual's potential by integrating opposites into a harmonious whole, by getting away from the aimlessness of life. Psychopathology is disorganization. Sanity is harmony.
Decribe the process of Jungian therapy.
- To achieve the 3 goals of therapy, a therapist should guide an analysant through four stages in the therapeutic process:
- 1. Confession (the Pt reports his or her experiences)
- 2. Elucidation (the therapist helps the Pt understand the meaning of his or her symptoms)
- 3. Education (the Pt leanrs how to get out of the state of misery)
- 4. Transformation (the Pt achieves changes)
- Confession: reporting
- Elucidation: Understanding
- Education: Learning
- Transformation: Doing
How was the unconscious viewed?
Unconscious was defined as mostly repressed desires and memories. It is not something that is forgotten but can be later remembered, which is termed preconscious. The unconscious is a reservoir of guilty wishes and indecent thoughts. The desire to reexperience some of these thoughts is matched by a powerful force that keeps them inside. What keeps the desires inside is conscience, a moral guardian, which develops under the pressure of social norms.
Freud formulated the concept called the unconscious (appearing a noun, not an adjective). It involved activities that were not open to direct conscious scrutiny, but influenced conscious process and behavior. It was viewed as a complicated dynamic of wishes and drives fighting against restrictions, logic, and delays of gratification of these wishes.
Jung, on the other hand, believed there must be an impersonal layer in the human psyche, different from the individual unconscious, which he called the collective unconscious. It is inherited and shared with other members of the species. Jung agreed with Freud that the indiv unconscious consists primarily of repressed ideas. But the content of the collective unconscious consists of archetypes, or images of the primordial character. Thus, people shared similar experiences, which was manifested as dreams, fantasies, and delusions.
Describe how Jung's archetypes manifest.
Shadow - contains the unconscious aspects of the self. In a way, it resembles the id. The shadow acts according to its instinctual forces. It manifests in a person as attachments, aggressive acts, fears, avoidant behavior, and so forth.
Persona - a symbolic mask appearing in the collective unconscious to convince or trick other people into the belief that the carrier of the mask is playing a particular social role. It represents a person's public image. Real or imaginary social roles can be productive and healthy; it can also be pathological when the person suffers from a split between the b/w "real' personality features and actual social roles.
Anima - An archetype in which men have an inherited collective image of the feminine human essence. In contrast, woman has an inherited image of masculine essence called Animus. These two archetypes are primarily unconscious masculine and feminine psychological qualities. They provide an unconscious guide to our romantic behavior. People often fall in love without a rational reason because the real guides of their feelings and subsequent behavior are their archetypes.
How were dreams viewed in psychoanalysis?
Freud wanted to find a connection between a dream's content and an individual's past experiences. Freud assumed that dreams represent wish fulfillment, a symbolic attempt to realize an unfulfilled desire. Every dream has two contents. One is easily describable, which is called the manifest content (because it is manifested or presented as a story). The other is latent content, the meaning of which is hidden because of its traumatic or shameful nature.
What are Jung's psychological types?
The idea came to Jung when he compared the experiences of schizophrenic patients with those patients with hysteria. The hysteric patient attaches his energy to other people, which is an act that Jung termed Extraversion. Conversely, most schizophrenic patients turn energy back to themselves, which is an act he named introversion.
What were Freud's views on women?
- Freud's views on women were controversial.
- - Viewed women as "failed" men because of their anatomical differences.
- - Girls tend to develop an envious reaction, which later manifests in some women in various forms of submissive behavior.
- - Other women, to overcome envy, express constant hostility toward men.
- - Considered women as sexually passive as compared with men. Such passivity was the result of social inequities and cultural restrictions imposed on women.
- - He did not accept the Feminist movement and encouraged women to have access to sex education, contraceptives, choices in marriage, and the right to divorce.
- - Encouraged women who decided to become psychoanalysts to receive education and training.
Explain Adler's view of organs.
One of Adler's central concepts is organ inferiority. It refers to not only organs as such (the eye, the hand, the heart), but also to various sensory and physiological systems, including the nervous system. The term stands for a wide range of difficulties that become impediments. They can be physical or psychological. They appear at birth but may develop later in life.
According to Adler, a physically defective organ or a malfunctioning system send signals to the brain that suggest something is wrong or insufficient. The body then needs to compensate for an emerging insufficiency and to find energy resources to address the problem.
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