Lab Final

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ba
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119083
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Lab Final
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2011-11-27 22:47:54
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Lab final
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  1. How do you find the sensitivity requirement?
    • Put 6mg on one side of the balance and measure the deviation, then put 10g on both sides and add 6mg on one side and measure the deviation and compart to the deviation
    • PLot the weight against the number of scale divisions shifted by each weight on graph paper
    • Make a straight line and measure the weight that will cause a shift of one scale division
  2. What is the equation for percent error?
    Percent error = [(sensitivity requirement)(100)]/[quatity desired]
  3. What is the equation for the smallest quantity to be weight?
    Smallest quantity to be weight = [(Sensitivity requirment)(100)]/[Permissible percent of error]
  4. What is the aliquot method?
    • Weigh a multiple of the quantitydesired
    • Dilute the multiple in a suitable manner
    • Weigh or measure an aliquot of the final mixture
  5. What is geometric dilution?
    When mixing a small amount of drug (mg level) with a large amount of a second. the drug is placed in the mortar with equal bulk of the other ingrediant. The two ingredients are triturated until intimately mixed . Then equal bulk of the second ingredients is added to the mixture and the powders are intimately mixed
  6. Define: capsule
    Are solid dosage forms in which the drug substances is enclosed in either a hard or solf , soluble container of shell of a suitable form of gelatin
  7. What is the punch method?
    • Manually filling capsules one by one
    • Flatten the powder so that it is no greater than 1/3 the length of the capsule
  8. What is the most common solid dosage form?
    Tablet
  9. Define: tablet
    Unit form of solid drugs prepared by compaction
  10. Define: stick
    • topical medicated dosage form for adminsitrating topical medications
    • Chapstick
  11. What are the two methods for preparing onintments?
    • Fusion
    • Incorporation
  12. WHat is the incorporation method?
    The components of the ointments are mixed together by various means until a uniform preparation has been atained
  13. Define: ointment
    Are semi-solid preparations containing dissolved or dispersed drugs or no drugs intended for external application to the body
  14. Define: cream
    • are emulsified ointments
    • Viscous liquid or semisolid emulsions systems either oil in water or the water in oil "creamy white" appearance
  15. What method is generally used to make creams?
    • Fusion
    • (THe oil and aqueous phases are heated separately, the emulsifier agent is added to the aqueous phase and the emulsion is formed by slow addition of the oil phase)
  16. Define: lotion
    are usually liquid suspensions of emulsions intended for external application to the skin and mucosa
  17. Define: pastes
    basucally ointments into which a higher percent of insoluble solids have been added, as much as 50% by weight in some instances
  18. cream: cetyl ester wax
    stiffening agent
  19. cold cream: mineral oil
    oleagenous vehicle
  20. cold cream: water
    aqueous vehicle
  21. cream: sodium borate
    emulsifing agent
  22. paste: starch
    stiffening agent
  23. lotion: zinc oxide, calamine
    active ingredients with protectant and astringent properties
  24. lotion: glycerin
    levigating agent
  25. lotion: microcrytalline cellulose
    suspending agent
  26. lotion: carboxymethylcellulose
    suspending agent
  27. lotion; calcium hydroxide solution
    • aka lime water
    • vehicle with antringent property
  28. Define: gel
    • are semisolid systems consisting of suspnsions made up of either small inorganic particles or large organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid
    • are semigrid systems in which the movement of the dispensing medium is restricted by an interlacing three dimensional network
  29. What gelling agent is primarly used in aqueous systems
    carbomer
  30. gel: hydroxypropylcellulose
    gelling agent
  31. gel: propylene glycol
    levigating agent
  32. gel: polysorbate 80
    • tween 80
    • solubilizing agent
  33. gel: 70% isopropyl alcohol
    solvent, vehicle
  34. gel: carbomer 934
    gelling agent
  35. gel: alcohol
    solvent
  36. gel: p water
    solvent
  37. define: suppositories
    are solid dosage forms intended for insertion into body orifices where they melt, soften, or dissolve and exert localized or systemic effects
  38. What are the three classes of suppository bases?
    • fatty/oleagenous
    • water miscible bases
    • miscellaneous, combination of lipophilic and hydrophilic bases
  39. What are fatty/oleagenous bases?
    • cocoa butter
    • hydrogenated fatty acids of vetgetable oils
    • kernal oil
    • fatty acid glyceride such are glyceryl monopalmitate
  40. What suppository base melts body temperature to release the medicament
    fatty/oleagenous bases
  41. what is an example of water-miscible base?
    polyethylene glycol
  42. What type of suppository base dissolve in the body cavity?
    water miscible
  43. What are the two methods of making suppositories?
    • molding from a melt
    • cold compression
  44. suppository: PEG
    water miscible bases
  45. define: solutions
    as liquid preparations that contain one or more soluble chemical substances usually dissolved in water or water miscible pharmaceutical solvents and that do not, by reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation or used, fall into other groups of product
  46. define: elixirs
    aqueous pharmaceuticl solutions sweetened hydroalcoholic
  47. define: syrups
    aqueous pharmaceutical solutions containing sugar
  48. What is a simple solution?
    composed of one substances
  49. what is compound solution?
    solution containing more than on esolute
  50. What is a chemical solution?
    solutions whose components are the product of a chemical reaction
  51. What is a saturated solution?
    Solutions containing all the solute that the solvent will hold
  52. define: solvent
    compose the major portion of a solution
  53. Drugs adminstered as __________ liquids are generally absorbed much more rapidly
    aqueous liquids
  54. solution: polysorbate 20
    levigating agent
  55. solution: ethanol 95%
    co-solvent
  56. solution: sodium saccharin
    sweetner
  57. solution: sodium benzoate
    antimicrobial
  58. solution: sorbitol 70% solution
    sweetner
  59. solution: tween 80
    solubilizing agent
  60. solution: sodium saccharine
    sweetener
  61. solution: lemon oil
    flavor agent
  62. solution: citric acid
    acidifier/stabilizer
  63. solution: glycerin
    thickening
  64. solution: methylparaben
    preservative
  65. What are the components of an syrup?
    • sugar
    • antimicrobial preservative
    • flavorants
    • colorants
  66. What is the concentration of sugar in simple syrupe NF
    85%
  67. define: elixir
    are clear sweetened hydroalcoholic solutions intended and are usually flavored to enhance pala
  68. What percent of alcohol is needed to make it self preserved?
    10 to 12 percent
  69. elixir: cocoa
    flavor
  70. elixir: sucrose
    sweetner
  71. elixir: glycerin
    levigating agent
  72. elixir: sodium chloride
    stabilizer
  73. elixir: vanillin
    flavor
  74. elixir: sodium benzoate
    antimicrobial
  75. syrup: benzoic acid
    antimicrobial preservative
  76. syrup: disodium calcium EDTA
    chelating agent, stabilizer
  77. syrup: propylene glycol
    thickening agent, co-solvent, sweetner
  78. syrup: alcohol
    • co-solvent
    • antimicrobial
  79. syrup: saccharin
    sweetner
  80. define: suspension
    are preparations containing finely divided drug particles (suspensoid) distributed somewhat uniformly throughout a vehicle (dispersion medium)
  81. what are the problems presented to a suspension?
    • aggregation
    • sedimentation
    • impaction
  82. suspension: glycerylmonostearate
    suspending agent
  83. suspension: glycerin
    levigating
  84. suspension: sodium lauryl sulfate
    surfactant
  85. suspension: methylparaben
    preservative
  86. suspension: propylparaben
    preservative
  87. define: emulsions
    is a dispersion in which the dispersed phase (internal phase) is composed of smal globules of a liquid distributed throughout a vehicle/medium (external phase) in which it is imiscible
  88. emulsion: cottonseed oil
    oleagenous phase solvent
  89. emulsion: polyoxyethylene sorbitan-monostearate (tween 60)
    emulsifier agent
  90. emulsion: sorbitan monooleate
    emulsifier agent
  91. emulsion: sodium saccharin
    sweetener
  92. emulsion: methylparaben
    preservative
  93. emulsion: sodium benzoate
    preservative

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