reproductive system

Card Set Information

reproductive system
2011-11-26 21:37:50

reproductive system anatomy
Show Answers:

  1. primary sex organs
    testes and ovaries
  2. gonads (testes and ovaries) produce
    • sex cells
    • -ova (oocyte)
    • -sperm
  3. gonads secrete
    • steroid sex hormones
    • -androgens (males)
    • -estrogens (estriadiol) and progesterone (females)
  4. acessory reproductive organs
    ducts, glands, and external genitalia
  5. sex hormones play roles in
    • -developement and fx of reproductive organs
    • -sexual behaviors and drives
    • -growth and development of other organs and tissues
  6. testes
    • within the scrotum
    • produce sperm
  7. sperm are released to the exterior via
    • -a system of ducts
    • -epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct
  8. the scrotum
    • Dartos muscle (smooth muscle)
    • contains paired testes
  9. smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin
    dartos muscle
  10. temp of scrotum is kept constant by
    • -dartos muscle (smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin
    • -cremaster muscle (bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes
  11. testes are divided by 2 tunics
    • tunica vaginalis
    • tunica albuginea (fibrous capsule deep to tunica vaginalis)
  12. each lobules of the testis contain
    1-4 seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production)
  13. septa
    divides the testes into 250-300 lobules, each containing 1-4 seminiferous tubules
  14. spermatogenesis
    the production of sperm in seminiferous tubules
  15. interstitital (leydig) cells outside the seminiferous tubules produce
  16. external male genitalia
    scrotum and penis
  17. sperm path
    • from seminiferous tubules to rare testis
    • from rare testis to epididymis (where sperm mature)
    • once sperm leave epididymis they are mature
    • from epididymis sperm enter vas deferens
    • from vas deferens to spermatic cord
  18. 3 regions of urethra
    • prostatic urethra
    • membranous urethra
    • spongy (penile) urethra
  19. semen contains
    • fructose
    • prostaglandins (motility)
    • clotting protiens
    • clotting enzymes
  20. ejaculatory duct=
    seminal vesicle (smooth muscle) + vas deferens (smooth muscle)
  21. ejaculatory duct opens into
    prosttic urethra
  22. prostate gland (smooth muscle) secretes
    • prostatic fluid
    • other 1\3 of sperm
  23. bulbobourethral gland (cowpers gland)
    lubricates and neutralizes the acidity of the penile urethra upon sexual arousal
  24. spermatogenesis
    sequence of events that produce sperm in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
  25. sertoli cells (sustentacular cells)
    • protect and surround the developing sperm cells
    • make fluid
    • make 2 hormones
    • -ABP (androgen binding protien)
    • -Inhibin
  26. Androgen binding protien
    binds around the testosterone to make it too big to go into blood
  27. inhibin
    sertoli cells secrete inhibin if sperm production gets to be too much. Inhibin inhibits FSH
  28. female gonads
  29. ovaries
    • producce female gametes (ova)
    • secrete female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
  30. accessory ducts to ovaries
    • uterine tubes
    • uterus
    • vagina
  31. internal genitalia
    • ovaries
    • uterine tubes
    • uterus
    • vagina
  32. external genitalia
    • external sex organs
    • vulva
    • introutus (vaginal opening) is part of vulva
  33. introtus opens to the
    • cervix (1st pat of uterus)
    • cervis opens to the body
    • body opens to the fundus
    • fundus opens to the fallopian tubes (uterine tube)
    • fallopian tube opens to infundibulum (end of fallopian tube)
    • fimbiae hang from infundibulum
  34. ovaries are held in place
    • by seveal ligaments
    • broad ligament : peritoneum
  35. 3 layes of uterus
    • endometrium (innemost layer gets shed eacth month)
    • myometrium
    • peimetrium (oupter part of uterus)
  36. opening to uterus
    • external os (to cervix)
    • internal os (from cervix to uterus body)
  37. ovaries
    • ovarian cortex (ovaian follicles)
    • ovarian medulla (blood vessels and nerves)
    • follicle (immatue ooyte surrounded by follicle cells and granulosa cells)
  38. oogonia undergo
    • meiosis 1 to become primary oocyte
    • 7 million at gestation
    • 2 million at birth
  39. follicles stages of development
    • primordial
    • primary follicles
    • secondary follicles (max developement of follicles in pre pubescent girl)
  40. secondary follicles are stimulated to grow under
  41. one follicle matures the most to become
    • vesicular graafian follicle
    • once a month the follicle forms a blister on the ovary, blister pops - ovulation
    • primary oocyte goes through meiosis 1 to become secondary oocyte
  42. corpus luteum
    • if no fertilization, it scars
    • under LH it is viable for 3 months when pregnant
    • after 3 months corpus luteum disintegrates and placenta takes over
  43. female duct system
    • uterine (fallopian tubes) or oviducts
    • uterus
    • vagina
  44. endometrium
    • stratum functionalis (functional layer)
    • -changes in response to ovarian hormone cycles
    • -is shed during menstruation
    • stratum basalis (basal layer)
    • -forms new functionalis after menstruation
  45. monthly cycle of women
    • -menstrual phase
    • -pre ovulatory phase
    • FSH level drop, progesterone drops, estrogen high
    • -ovulation
    • -post ovulatory phase (= luteal phase, all about corpus luteum
    • FSH level rise
    • progesterone rise
    • LH causes ovulation