Ethics Final

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Ethics Final
2011-11-30 00:49:40
Ethics Final

Ethics Final
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  1. Christina Hoffs Sommers
  2. Jean Paul Sartre
  3. Thomas Aquinas
  4. Bernard Mayo
  5. Emmanuel Levinas
  6. Kierkegaard
  7. Jane English
  8. Simone de Beauvoir
  9. Philip Hallie
  10. Carol Gilligan
  11. Jeremy Bentham
  12. John Stuart Mills
  13. James Rachels
  14. Ruth Benedict
  15. Morals
    the moral rules and attitudes that we live by or are expected to live by.
  16. Ethics
    • the study, questioning and justification of moral rules.
    • ethics of virtue: the study of moral rules pertaining to the building of chafracter or "how to be"
  17. Plato's View on Dramatic Plays
    • Plato believed that drama was bad as it inspired violent emotions . If watching a violet play a person would be inspired to act violent.
    • Ideal life was spen in balance and harmony. Reason helped keep a person in balance if emotions took over reason would be diminished and imbalance would occur.
  18. Aristotle's View on Dramatic Plays
    Aristotle believed that art, especially dramatic art had a cathartic effect on spectators. He believed that watching a play allowed spectators to act out their emotions vicariously.
  19. Cultural Relativism
    theory that different societies or cultures have different moral codes. A descriptive theory.
  20. Induction
    the scientific and philosophical method of collecting empirical evidence and formulation a general theory based on those specific facts.
  21. Problem of Induction
    The problem of induction: because one never knows if one has collected enough evidence, one can never achieve 100 % certainty through induction.
  22. Didactic Stories
    done or told for the purpose of teaching a lesson
  23. Ethical Egoism
    the theory that everybody ought to be egoistic/selfish/self-interested
  24. Psychological Egoism
    theory that everyone is selfish, self-interested
  25. Ring of Gyges
    • Story from Plato's The Republic
    • Story is told at a dinner party with Socrates. Told by Plato's brother Glaucon.
    • Gyges is a shepherd in Lydia. He was caught in a storm and earthquake that left a large hole in the ground. Gyges found a broze horse inside of the hole with the corpse of a giant inside of the horse. The giant was wearing a gold ring. Gyges took the gold ring and wore it himself. Later at a meeting he found that the ring made him invisible. He became one of the messengers who report to the king about the sheep. Using the ring he conspired with the Queen to kill the King and took over the kingdom.
    • Story based on Psychological Egoism.
  26. Ways to Use Narratives
  27. Universal Law
    Kant's term for a moral rule that can be imagined as applying to everybody in the same situation and accepted by other rational beings.
  28. Positive Rights
    rights of entitlement. The theory that each individual has a right to the basic means of subsistence against the state, such as food, shelter, clothing, education, welfare, health services.
  29. Negative Rights
    Rights not to be interfered with; usually includes the right to life, liberty and property. Originally an element in John Locke's political philosophy; has become a defining element of modern Libertarian philosophy.
  30. Forward Justice
    creating good future social consequences. see also consequentialism.
  31. Backward Justice
    correction past wrongs.
  32. Moral Difference
    (all approaches)
    • 1. Moral Nihilism, Skepticism, and Subjectivism
    • 2. Ethical Relativism
    • 3. Soft Universalism
    • 4. Hard Universalism
  33. Moral Nihilism
    Nihilism-from the latin word nihil, nothing. The attitude of beliving in nothing. Moral nihilism: the conviction that there are no moral truths.
  34. Skepticism
    the philosophical approach that we cannot obtain absolutely certain knowledge. In practice it is an approach of not believing anything until there is sufficient evidence to prove it.
  35. Subjectivism
    thical theory that claims that your moral belief is right simply because you believe it; there are no intersubjective (shared) moral standards.
  36. Ethical Relativism
    the theory that there is no universal moral code and that whatever the majority of any given society or culture considers morally right is morally right for that culture. A normative theory.
  37. Soft Universalism
    the ethical theory that although humans may not agree on all moral rules or all customs. there are a few bottom-line rules we can agree on, despite our different ways of expressing them.
  38. Hard Universalism
    The ethical theory that there is a universal set of moral rules that can and should be followed by everybody (aka: absolutism)
  39. Waves of Feminism
    • 1. First Wave
    • 2. Second Wave
    • 3. Third Wave
  40. First Wave of Feminism
    Feminism from 18th century until approx. 1920
  41. Second Wave of Feminism
    Feminism in the United States and Eruope from the mid-1950s on. SOme consider second wave feminism to have ended by the mid-1980s; others see it as continuing.
  42. Third Wave of Feminism
    feminism from the mid-1980s to the present day.
  43. 3 Views of Feminism
    • 1. Classical Feminism
    • 2. Difference Feminism
    • 3. Radical Feminism
  44. Classical Feminism
    the feminist view that women and men ought to be considered person first and genered beings second. Gender differences are due to "nature" rather than "nurture"
  45. Difference Feminism
    the feminism view that women and men are fundamentally different, morally and psychologically due to human nature.
  46. Radical Feminism
    the feminist that the root cause of male dominance of women and discrimination against women must be examined.
  47. Retentionism
    the viewpoint that the death penalty ought to be retained (kept as an option)
  48. Kant and duty
  49. criticisms of Kant
  50. Kingdom of Ends
    Kant's term for a society of autonomous lawmakers who all use the categorical imperative and show respect to one another.
  51. Who is a person
  52. 3 definitions of equality
    • pg 330
    • 1) Fundamental equality
    • 2) Social equality
    • 3) Equal treatment for equals.
  53. Fundamental Equality
    concept that says that people should be treated as equals by their government and their legal system. No special privileges, just an entitlement to respect and consideration as human beings. (US Declaration of Independance)
  54. Social Equality
    • idea that people are equal within a social setting, such as politics or the economy.
    • today it is usually obtained through formal rights such as the right to vote and to stand for public office.
  55. Equal Treatment for Equals
    doesnt state the definition of what equal is condsidered to be. so generally it is considered elitist with no underlying intent to recongnize equality as a fundamental human right.
  56. Socrates
  57. Plato: Forms
  58. Plato: Myth of Cave
  59. Plato: Rulers
  60. Plato: Corresponding Virtues
  61. Aristotle: Golden Mean
    the Greek idea of moderation. Aristotle's concept of virture as a relative mean between the extremes of excess and deficiency.
  62. Aristotle: Purpose
  63. Aristotle: Criticisms
  64. Media Ethics
  65. Asians and the elderly
  66. Just war
  67. all approaches to punishment