the moral rules and attitudes that we live by or are expected to live by.
the study, questioning and justification of moral rules.
ethics of virtue: the study of moral rules pertaining to the building of chafracter or "how to be"
Plato's View on Dramatic Plays
Plato believed that drama was bad as it inspired violent emotions . If watching a violet play a person would be inspired to act violent.
Ideal life was spen in balance and harmony. Reason helped keep a person in balance if emotions took over reason would be diminished and imbalance would occur.
Aristotle's View on Dramatic Plays
Aristotle believed that art, especially dramatic art had a cathartic effect on spectators. He believed that watching a play allowed spectators to act out their emotions vicariously.
theory that different societies or cultures have different moral codes. A descriptive theory.
the scientific and philosophical method of collecting empirical evidence and formulation a general theory based on those specific facts.
Problem of Induction
The problem of induction: because one never knows if one has collected enough evidence, one can never achieve 100 % certainty through induction.
done or told for the purpose of teaching a lesson
the theory that everybody ought to be egoistic/selfish/self-interested
theory that everyone is selfish, self-interested
Ring of Gyges
Story from Plato's The Republic
Story is told at a dinner party with Socrates. Told by Plato's brother Glaucon.
Gyges is a shepherd in Lydia. He was caught in a storm and earthquake that left a large hole in the ground. Gyges found a broze horse inside of the hole with the corpse of a giant inside of the horse. The giant was wearing a gold ring. Gyges took the gold ring and wore it himself. Later at a meeting he found that the ring made him invisible. He became one of the messengers who report to the king about the sheep. Using the ring he conspired with the Queen to kill the King and took over the kingdom.
Story based on Psychological Egoism.
Ways to Use Narratives
Kant's term for a moral rule that can be imagined as applying to everybody in the same situation and accepted by other rational beings.
rights of entitlement. The theory that each individual has a right to the basic means of subsistence against the state, such as food, shelter, clothing, education, welfare, health services.
Rights not to be interfered with; usually includes the right to life, liberty and property. Originally an element in John Locke's political philosophy; has become a defining element of modern Libertarian philosophy.
creating good future social consequences. see also consequentialism.
correction past wrongs.
1. Moral Nihilism, Skepticism, and Subjectivism
2. Ethical Relativism
3. Soft Universalism
4. Hard Universalism
Nihilism-from the latin word nihil, nothing. The attitude of beliving in nothing. Moral nihilism: the conviction that there are no moral truths.
the philosophical approach that we cannot obtain absolutely certain knowledge. In practice it is an approach of not believing anything until there is sufficient evidence to prove it.
thical theory that claims that your moral belief is right simply because you believe it; there are no intersubjective (shared) moral standards.
the theory that there is no universal moral code and that whatever the majority of any given society or culture considers morally right is morally right for that culture. A normative theory.
the ethical theory that although humans may not agree on all moral rules or all customs. there are a few bottom-line rules we can agree on, despite our different ways of expressing them.
The ethical theory that there is a universal set of moral rules that can and should be followed by everybody (aka: absolutism)
Waves of Feminism
1. First Wave
2. Second Wave
3. Third Wave
First Wave of Feminism
Feminism from 18th century until approx. 1920
Second Wave of Feminism
Feminism in the United States and Eruope from the mid-1950s on. SOme consider second wave feminism to have ended by the mid-1980s; others see it as continuing.
Third Wave of Feminism
feminism from the mid-1980s to the present day.
3 Views of Feminism
1. Classical Feminism
2. Difference Feminism
3. Radical Feminism
the feminist view that women and men ought to be considered person first and genered beings second. Gender differences are due to "nature" rather than "nurture"
the feminism view that women and men are fundamentally different, morally and psychologically due to human nature.
the feminist that the root cause of male dominance of women and discrimination against women must be examined.
the viewpoint that the death penalty ought to be retained (kept as an option)
Kant and duty
criticisms of Kant
Kingdom of Ends
Kant's term for a society of autonomous lawmakers who all use the categorical imperative and show respect to one another.
Who is a person
3 definitions of equality
1) Fundamental equality
2) Social equality
3) Equal treatment for equals.
concept that says that people should be treated as equals by their government and their legal system. No special privileges, just an entitlement to respect and consideration as human beings. (US Declaration of Independance)
idea that people are equal within a social setting, such as politics or the economy.
today it is usually obtained through formal rights such as the right to vote and to stand for public office.
Equal Treatment for Equals
doesnt state the definition of what equal is condsidered to be. so generally it is considered elitist with no underlying intent to recongnize equality as a fundamental human right.
Plato: Myth of Cave
Plato: Corresponding Virtues
Aristotle: Golden Mean
the Greek idea of moderation. Aristotle's concept of virture as a relative mean between the extremes of excess and deficiency.