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a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity
Characteristics of emotion
- Transitory--emotions have beginnings and ends.
- Valence--positive or negative.
- Cognitive appraisal--how we think about a situation can affect our emotional response.
- Alters thought processes--it changes the way we think about the world; directs our attention.
- Elicits action tendency--motivates us to behave in a certain way.
- Passions, usually without will--we have some control (e.g., the way we interpret things). But generally not things that we cause in ourselves through thinking.
- Symmetry-Real expression is symmetrical
- Duration-Real expression between ½ and 5 secs
- Temporal patterning-Sincere expressions appear smoothly, fake are abrupt
Theories of emotions
- James-Lange (action first then emotion)
- Cannon-Bard (emotion first then action)
- Schacter-Singer (arousal first then interpretation of arousal as emotion)
James-Lange theory of emotion
emotion becomes conscious when the brain notices specific bodily changes aka facial feedback; “we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble”
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
You simultaneously feel fear and run away at the same time.
Schacter-Singer theory (aka cognitive appraisal theory)
Our emotions occur by a COMBINATION of feedback from peripheral sources and our cognitive interpretation of the situation. “You first feel physiological arousal (i.e., emotion), and then you figure out the source of the arousal (a bear!), and feel fear and run away.”
process of identifying the cause of some event
Misattribution of Arousal and Attraction experiment
Male participants far more likely to call experimenter if had crossed bridge and experimenter was female
facial feedback hypothesis
feeling involuntary facial movements should be enough to drive an emotional experience.-aka James-Lange theory
Histrionic Personality disorder
Disorder causing people to be very susceptible to suggestion
reason or purpose that provides an explanation for behaviors
factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior
reasons to study motivation
- understand variability of performance
- assign responsibility
- explain perseverance
sources of motivation
- Biological--needs for food, water, warmth.
- Emotional—our emotions may motivate us to act a certain way (e.g., fear, excitement)
- Cognitive--our perceptions and expectations affect our behavior
- Social--we get info from the people around us about behavior; we also may want to affect the behavior of others
Theories of motivation
- Drive reduction
Behavior is driven by automatic, involuntary, unlearned genetically encoded behaviors that respond to some stimulus
Drive reduction theory
We respond to drives (e.g., hunger) and we strive to reduce these drives and restore balance.
stem from biological needs; basically unlearned.
learned; once we learn them, act like primary drives.
Tendency for organisms to keep physiological systems at equilibrium
Physiological felling of arousal that prompts an organism to take action
People are motivated to behave in ways to maintain their optimal arousal
general level of activation reflected in the state of several psychological systems.
Arousal and performance
- people can tolerate high levels of arousal on easy tasks, but not on difficult ones.
- Optimal level of arousal differs from person to person.
- OPTIMAL AROUSAL ENHANCES PERFORMANCE
- People act to attain positive incentives and avoid negative ones
- Environmental, external stimuli can motivate behavior
Maslow’s need hierarchy
- From bottom to top:
- Physiological--food, oxygen, water. Basic biological needs.
- Safety--money, caregivers.
- Belongingness and love--acceptance, social outlets, affection.
- Esteem--being respected.
- Self-actualization--becoming all that you are capable of.
- Those lower in the hierarchy take precedence over those higher in the hierarchy.
- An attempt to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
- – Gordon Allport
Sherrif had them stare at a dot of light that doesn’t move and there is no other light in the room, people perceive that it moves
Lewin’s Magic Formula (social)
- B = f (P,E)
- Behavior=function (Person, environment)
Strategies adopted during board game
Cooperative OR Competitive
Board game study-Ross &Samuels
- Groups of competitive and cooperative people Played same game-“Wall Street” or “Community”
- Community= large number of cooperative and competitive people used COOPERATIVE strategy
- Wall street=very few of cooperative/competitive people used cooperative strategy
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency (that many people have) to make too many internal attributions for other people’s behaviors ex late b/c jerk when really he’s late b/c traffic
- The tendency to see other people’s behavior as dispositionally caused but focusing more on the situation to explain our own behavior
- Example: Writers to advise columns attribute their troubles overwhelmingly to the situation, but the advice giver attributes the problem to the person (Schoeneman & Rubanowitz, 1985)
A change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people ex ASCH-line experiment
Obedience to Authority
- Participants told to shock “other participant” to investigate “study of effective of punishment on learning”
- To investigate how far people will go when “obeying authority”
How do we treat the nonconformist?
- Johnny Rocco study (Schachter, 1951)
- Deviant, slider, compliant
- Deviant in group received most comments from others to convince him, until he wouldn’t change
- Deviant ignored at the end, rejected
- Slider was most liked
Bystander effect (Darley & Latane)
- As the number of people increases, the chances of any one person helping decreases
- Diffusion of responsibility
- Evaluation apprehension
Decision making steps
- 1. Perceive a need
- 2. Take personal responsibility
- 3. Weigh costs and benefits
- 4. Deciding how to help and action
- Three points: Intimacy, attraction and commitment with Consummate love inside
- Attraction + intimacy=passionate love
- Intimacy + commitment=companionate love
- Commitment-empty relationship
Cheap behaviors of love
- Saying “I love you” and verbal affection
- Physical expressions of love (hugging)
- Material signs of love (presents)
Expensive behaviors of love
- Verbal self-disclosure
- Communicating nonverbally
- Nonmaterial love (interest, respect)
- Willingness to tolerate other and sacrifice for relationship
An individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
- Belief that Childhood experiences, Unconscious motives and Sexual instincts are important in determining personality
- personality is formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness – motives that can produce emotional disorders.
- Conscious awareness, The self, Subjective feelings are key to personality
- emphasized a positive, optimistic view of human nature that highlights people’s inherent goodness and their potential for personal growth.-people have an innate desire for self-actualization
- Interpretations of experiences, Organization of reality, Expectations
- views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them
Temperament, Abilities, Enduring characteristics
- External environment, Rewards and punishments, Observable Behavior
- Doesn't believe there is a personality and that people are a result of their environment, the reward and punishments they receive and how the act
- a view of personality that focuses on the external contingencies that contributed to the development of a person.
Approaches for personality analysis
- Social Cognitive
2 traditions of measurement
- Projective – a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual’s personality
- Objective – a series of clear stimuli (usually items) designed to assess a particular personality feature.
Example of projective test
Sentence completion test
Example of objective test
Sensation seeking test: True or False
Believes there is a constant struggle between desire to meet biological urges and realities of living and that unconscious processes influence behavior
inborn, unconscious instincts-pleasure principle
in charge of the personality -reality principle
internalized rules of society -morality principle
Defense mechanisms of psychodynamics
- Reaction formation: a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of the opposite.
Conditions for growth toward self-actualization (humanistic-MASLOW)
- •Unconditional positive regard
- •Accurate empathy
- •Love, warmth, trust
dimensions people use in making sense of their
Social Cognitive approach
- Person-situation controversy (cognitive approach)
- the question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situation factors.
- Traits: are relatively stable dispositions that lead one to behave in a particular and consistent way.
- Language holds the entirety of these traits.
Eysenck’s traits circumplex
- Introverted vs extroverted (L&R)
- Emotional vs Stable (T&B)
- Dominant vs Submissive (T&B)
- Cold vs Warm(L&R)
Structured personality Tests (TRAIT)
- Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Hathaway and McKinley (1940)
- Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory Personality Inventory (NEO PI) – Costa and McCrea (1992 revised version)
- Designed to measure The Big Five
- •openness to experience
- 240 items (1 – 5, agree or disagree)
- 567 True/False questions
- .Hypochondriasis - Concern with bodily symptoms
- .Depression – Depressive Symptom
- .Hysteria - Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities
- .Psychopathic Deviate - Conflict, struggle, anger, respect for
- society's rules
- .Masculinity/Femininity - Stereotypical masculine or feminine
- .Paranoia - Level of trust, suspiciousness, sensitivity
- .Psychasthenia - Worry, Anxiety, phobias, obsessiveness
- .Schizophrenia - Odd thinking and social alienation
- .Hypomania - Level of excitability
- .Social Introversion - People orientation
Personality in the Mirror
The “I” (self)
The self who thinks, experiences, and acts in the world. It is the self as knower.
The “Me” (self)
The self who is an object in the world; the self as known. Related to the “me” is self-concept
- R4elate to “me”
- a person’s explicit knowledge of his or her own behaviors, traits and other personal characteristics
the extent to which an individual likes, values, and accepts the self
Basic principles for treatment
- Goal: help person change
- use proven methods before trying other approaches
- works for many but doesn’t work for all problems
five Rs of treatment
Response, Remission, Relapse, Recovery, Recurrence
Types of treatment
- Biological interventions
Types of causes
- Biological risk
- Psychological risk
- Social risk
- Stress from situation
- 3)Electroconvulsive therapy
- Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic therapy
- Gestalt therapy
- Cognitive-Behavior therapy
- Client-centered (Humanistic) therapy
- .symptoms are symbolic of underlying conflict
- .symptoms are determined by defense mechanisms (denial, repression, sublimation, rationalization, displacement, humor)
- .insight will relieve symptoms
- .free association
- .dream interpretation
- .analysis of the transference
- .Here and now
- .Pay attention to the obvious
- .Actively break down all defenses
Behavior therapy assumptions
- .behavior is determined by antecedents and consequences
- .these are the “causes”
- .changing behavior can lead to emotional changes
- .insight is not enough
Cognitive therapy assumptions
- .emotions determined by self-statements (not events themselves)
- .people aware of, and can discuss, cognitive events
- .intensity and duration of negative emotions can be diminished by teaching more rational cognitions
Cognitive therapy procedures
- .recognize maladaptive (irrational) self-statements (crap-colored glasses)
- .substitute adaptive cognitions
Client-centered (Humanistic) therapy
- .Carl Rogers (and others)
- .genuineness, accurate empathy, and unconditional positive regard are the basic building blocks of therapy