psych E 3

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  1. Emotion
    a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity
  2. Characteristics of emotion
    • Transitory--emotions have beginnings and ends.
    • Valence--positive or negative.
    • Cognitive appraisal--how we think about a situation can affect our emotional response.
    • Alters thought processes--it changes the way we think about the world; directs our attention.
    • Elicits action tendency--motivates us to behave in a certain way.
    • Passions, usually without will--we have some control (e.g., the way we interpret things). But generally not things that we cause in ourselves through thinking.
  3. Lying characteristics
    • Symmetry-Real expression is symmetrical
    • Duration-Real expression between ½ and 5 secs
    • Temporal patterning-Sincere expressions appear smoothly, fake are abrupt
  4. Theories of emotions
    • James-Lange (action first then emotion)
    • Cannon-Bard (emotion first then action)
    • Schacter-Singer (arousal first then interpretation of arousal as emotion)
  5. James-Lange theory of emotion
    emotion becomes conscious when the brain notices specific bodily changes aka facial feedback; “we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble”
  6. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
    You simultaneously feel fear and run away at the same time.
  7. Schacter-Singer theory (aka cognitive appraisal theory)
    Our emotions occur by a COMBINATION of feedback from peripheral sources and our cognitive interpretation of the situation. “You first feel physiological arousal (i.e., emotion), and then you figure out the source of the arousal (a bear!), and feel fear and run away.”
  8. attribution
    process of identifying the cause of some event
  9. Misattribution of Arousal and Attraction experiment
    Male participants far more likely to call experimenter if had crossed bridge and experimenter was female
  10. facial feedback hypothesis
    feeling involuntary facial movements should be enough to drive an emotional experience.-aka James-Lange theory
  11. Histrionic Personality disorder
    Disorder causing people to be very susceptible to suggestion
  12. Motive
    reason or purpose that provides an explanation for behaviors
  13. motivation
    factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior
  14. reasons to study motivation
    • understand variability of performance
    • assign responsibility
    • explain perseverance
  15. sources of motivation
    • Biological--needs for food, water, warmth.
    • Emotional—our emotions may motivate us to act a certain way (e.g., fear, excitement)
    • Cognitive--our perceptions and expectations affect our behavior
    • Social--we get info from the people around us about behavior; we also may want to affect the behavior of others
  16. Theories of motivation
    • Instinct
    • Drive reduction
    • arousal
    • incentive
  17. Instinct theory
    Behavior is driven by automatic, involuntary, unlearned genetically encoded behaviors that respond to some stimulus
  18. Drive reduction theory
    We respond to drives (e.g., hunger) and we strive to reduce these drives and restore balance.
  19. Primary drives
    stem from biological needs; basically unlearned.
  20. Secondary drives
    learned; once we learn them, act like primary drives.
  21. Homeostasis
    Tendency for organisms to keep physiological systems at equilibrium
  22. Drive
    Physiological felling of arousal that prompts an organism to take action
  23. Arousal theory
    People are motivated to behave in ways to maintain their optimal arousal
  24. Arousal
    general level of activation reflected in the state of several psychological systems.
  25. Arousal and performance
    • people can tolerate high levels of arousal on easy tasks, but not on difficult ones.
    • Optimal level of arousal differs from person to person.
  26. Incentive Theory
    • People act to attain positive incentives and avoid negative ones
    • Environmental, external stimuli can motivate behavior
  27. Maslow’s need hierarchy
    • From bottom to top:
    • Physiological--food, oxygen, water. Basic biological needs.
    • Safety--money, caregivers.
    • Belongingness and love--acceptance, social outlets, affection.
    • Esteem--being respected.
    • Self-actualization--becoming all that you are capable of.
    • Those lower in the hierarchy take precedence over those higher in the hierarchy.
  28. Social Psychology
    • An attempt to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
    • – Gordon Allport
  29. Autokinetic Effect
    Sherrif had them stare at a dot of light that doesn’t move and there is no other light in the room, people perceive that it moves
  30. Lewin’s Magic Formula (social)
    • B = f (P,E)
    • Behavior=function (Person, environment)
  31. Strategies adopted during board game
    Cooperative OR Competitive
  32. Board game study-Ross &Samuels
    • Groups of competitive and cooperative people Played same game-“Wall Street” or “Community”
    • Community= large number of cooperative and competitive people used COOPERATIVE strategy
    • Wall street=very few of cooperative/competitive people used cooperative strategy
  33. Fundamental Attribution Error
    the tendency (that many people have) to make too many internal attributions for other people’s behaviors ex late b/c jerk when really he’s late b/c traffic
  34. Actor-observer difference
    • The tendency to see other people’s behavior as dispositionally caused but focusing more on the situation to explain our own behavior
    • Example: Writers to advise columns attribute their troubles overwhelmingly to the situation, but the advice giver attributes the problem to the person (Schoeneman & Rubanowitz, 1985)
  35. Conformity
    A change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people ex ASCH-line experiment
  36. Obedience to Authority
    • Participants told to shock “other participant” to investigate “study of effective of punishment on learning”
    • To investigate how far people will go when “obeying authority”
  37. How do we treat the nonconformist?
    • Johnny Rocco study (Schachter, 1951)
    • Deviant, slider, compliant
    • Deviant in group received most comments from others to convince him, until he wouldn’t change
    • Deviant ignored at the end, rejected
    • Slider was most liked
  38. Bystander effect (Darley & Latane)
    • As the number of people increases, the chances of any one person helping decreases
    • Diffusion of responsibility
    • Evaluation apprehension
  39. Decision making steps
    • 1. Perceive a need
    • 2. Take personal responsibility
    • 3. Weigh costs and benefits
    • 4. Deciding how to help and action
  40. Sternberg’s triangle
    • Three points: Intimacy, attraction and commitment with Consummate love inside
    • Attraction + intimacy=passionate love
    • Intimacy + commitment=companionate love
    • Attraction=infatuation
    • Commitment-empty relationship
  41. Cheap behaviors of love
    • Saying “I love you” and verbal affection
    • Physical expressions of love (hugging)
    • Material signs of love (presents)
  42. Expensive behaviors of love
    • Verbal self-disclosure
    • Communicating nonverbally
    • Nonmaterial love (interest, respect)
    • Willingness to tolerate other and sacrifice for relationship
  43. Personality
    An individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
  44. Psychodynamic approach
    • Belief that Childhood experiences, Unconscious motives and Sexual instincts are important in determining personality
    • personality is formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness – motives that can produce emotional disorders.
  45. Humanistic approach
    • Conscious awareness, The self, Subjective feelings are key to personality
    • emphasized a positive, optimistic view of human nature that highlights people’s inherent goodness and their potential for personal growth.-people have an innate desire for self-actualization
  46. Cognitive approach
    • Interpretations of experiences, Organization of reality, Expectations
    • views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them
  47. Trait approach
    Temperament, Abilities, Enduring characteristics
  48. Learning apprach
    • External environment, Rewards and punishments, Observable Behavior
    • Doesn't believe there is a personality and that people are a result of their environment, the reward and punishments they receive and how the act
    • a view of personality that focuses on the external contingencies that contributed to the development of a person.
  49. Approaches for personality analysis
    • Psychodynamic
    • Humanistic
    • Social Cognitive
    • Trait
    • Learning
  50. 2 traditions of measurement
    • Projective – a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual’s personality
    • Objective – a series of clear stimuli (usually items) designed to assess a particular personality feature.
  51. Example of projective test
    Sentence completion test
  52. Example of objective test
    Sensation seeking test: True or False
  53. Sigmund Freud
    Believes there is a constant struggle between desire to meet biological urges and realities of living and that unconscious processes influence behavior
  54. Id
    inborn, unconscious instincts-pleasure principle
  55. ego
    in charge of the personality -reality principle
  56. superego
    internalized rules of society -morality principle
  57. Defense mechanisms of psychodynamics
    • Repression
    • Regression
    • Rationalization
    • Projection
    • Compensation
    • Reaction formation: a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of the opposite.
  58. Conditions for growth toward self-actualization (humanistic-MASLOW)
    • •Unconditional positive regard
    • •Accurate empathy
    • •Love, warmth, trust
  59. Personal constructs
    dimensions people use in making sense of their
  60. Social Cognitive approach
    • Person-situation controversy (cognitive approach)
    • the question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situation factors.
  61. Trait approach
    • Traits: are relatively stable dispositions that lead one to behave in a particular and consistent way.
    • Language holds the entirety of these traits.
  62. Trait: Big Five theory
  63. Eysenck’s traits circumplex
    • Introverted vs extroverted (L&R)
    • Emotional vs Stable (T&B)
  64. Leary’s circumplex
    • Dominant vs Submissive (T&B)
    • Cold vs Warm(L&R)
  65. Structured personality Tests (TRAIT)
    • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Hathaway and McKinley (1940)
    • Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory Personality Inventory (NEO PI) – Costa and McCrea (1992 revised version)
  66. NEO tested
    • Designed to measure The Big Five
    • •openness to experience
    • •conscientiousness
    • •extraversion
    • •agreeableness
    • •neuroticism
    • 240 items (1 – 5, agree or disagree)
  67. MMPI
    • 567 True/False questions
    • .Hypochondriasis - Concern with bodily symptoms
    • .Depression – Depressive Symptom
    • .Hysteria - Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities
    • .Psychopathic Deviate - Conflict, struggle, anger, respect for
    • society's rules
    • .Masculinity/Femininity - Stereotypical masculine or feminine
    • interests/behaviors6Pa
    • .Paranoia - Level of trust, suspiciousness, sensitivity
    • .Psychasthenia - Worry, Anxiety, phobias, obsessiveness
    • .Schizophrenia - Odd thinking and social alienation
    • .Hypomania - Level of excitability
    • .Social Introversion - People orientation
  68. The Self
    Personality in the Mirror
  69. The “I” (self)
    The self who thinks, experiences, and acts in the world. It is the self as knower.
  70. The “Me” (self)
    The self who is an object in the world; the self as known. Related to the “me” is self-concept
  71. Self-concept
    • R4elate to “me”
    • a person’s explicit knowledge of his or her own behaviors, traits and other personal characteristics
  72. Self-esteem
    the extent to which an individual likes, values, and accepts the self
  73. Basic principles for treatment
    • Goal: help person change
    • use proven methods before trying other approaches
    • works for many but doesn’t work for all problems
  74. five Rs of treatment
    Response, Remission, Relapse, Recovery, Recurrence
  75. Types of treatment
    • Psychotherapy
    • Biological interventions
  76. Types of causes
    • Biological risk
    • Psychological risk
    • Social risk
    • Stress from situation
    • Pharmacotherapy
  77. Biological interventions
    • 1)Psychopharmacology
    • 2)Psychosurgery
    • 3)Electroconvulsive therapy
  78. Psychotherapy
    • Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic therapy
    • Gestalt therapy
    • Cognitive-Behavior therapy
    • Client-centered (Humanistic) therapy
  79. Psychoanalysis (Assumptions)
    • .symptoms are symbolic of underlying conflict
    • .symptoms are determined by defense mechanisms (denial, repression, sublimation, rationalization, displacement, humor)
    • .insight will relieve symptoms
  80. Psychoanalysis
    • .free association
    • .dream interpretation
    • .analysis of the transference
  81. Gestalt therapy
    • .Here and now
    • .Pay attention to the obvious
    • .Actively break down all defenses
  82. Behavior therapy assumptions
    • .behavior is determined by antecedents and consequences
    • .these are the “causes”
    • .changing behavior can lead to emotional changes
    • .insight is not enough
  83. Cognitive therapy assumptions
    • .emotions determined by self-statements (not events themselves)
    • .people aware of, and can discuss, cognitive events
    • .intensity and duration of negative emotions can be diminished by teaching more rational cognitions
  84. Cognitive therapy procedures
    • .recognize maladaptive (irrational) self-statements (crap-colored glasses)
    • .substitute adaptive cognitions
  85. Client-centered (Humanistic) therapy
    • .Carl Rogers (and others)
    • .genuineness, accurate empathy, and unconditional positive regard are the basic building blocks of therapy
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psych E 3
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