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The normal range of respirtations in an adult is ?
12-20 per minute
temporary absence of breathing
respirations greater then 40 / minute
difficulty or inability to breath unless in an upright position
abnormal increase in the depth and rate of breathing
Blood pressure is the measurement of ?
amount of pressure exerted during the cardiac cycle
A stethoscope & sphygmomanometer are used for what ?
taking blood pressures
The size of the cuff of the sphygmomanometer depends on ?
the circumference of the limb and not the pt's age
The cuff is positioned at heart level and ?
2.5cm above the antecubital crease
Inflat the cuff about 30mm Hg above the palpatory systolic pressure, deflat slowly at what rate ?
2-3 mm Hg per second
The numbers of a Blood pressure is measured
____ over ____ ?
systolic over diastolic
Name 7 errors in blood pressure measurements
improper cuff size, arm is not at heart level, cuff is not completely deflated before use, deflation of cuff is faster then 2-3mmHg per sec., cuff is re-inflated during the procedure without resting arm for 1-2 min, improper cuff placement, and defective equipment.
Hypertension (HTN) is ?
140/90 or above
Hypotension is ?
90/60 or less
Anthropometric measurements in infants and toddlers are ?
length, height, weight, weight for lenth and head circumference
Anthropometric measurements in adults are ?
Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio, and percentage of body fat
4 principals of physical examination are :
Inspection, palpation, auscultation, and percussion
Palpation is ?
sense of touch
Auscultation is ?
listening to sounds , usually heart, lungs or abdomen
Medical assistant role in the phys. exam is ?
room prep, patient prep, and assisting the physician
Patient position for physical examinations
Horizontal Recumbent Position (supine)
Dorsal Recumbent Position is ?
patient on back with knees bent and feet flat on the bed
The Fowler's Position ?
promote drainage or ease breathing, sometimes a pillow under knees to raise slightly
Dorsal Lithotomy Position ?
usually examination of pelvic, OBGYN appts.
The Sim's Position ?
for rectal exams, pt is lying on their left side with their right knee flexed against abdomen and left knee slightly flexed
The Trendelenburg position ?
pt is lying on back with head lower then trunk, tx shock
3 types of hazards
physical, chemical, and biological
Most effect way to control bleeding
apply direct pressure to the wound
Shock is ?
insufficient return of blood flow to the heart, inadequate supply of O2 to all organs and tissues of the body
Common symptoms of shock are :
- Pale, cold, clammy skin
- rapid, weak pulse
- increased, shallow breathing rate
- starring eyes
1st aid for shock
- maintain open airway
- call for help
- keep pt in trendelenburg position
- keep pt warm
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) rate
adult is 30 compressions to 2 breaths = 100 compressions per minute
Infection control, Chain of Infection....in order
Agent, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, and susceptible host
Explain each Chain of Infection
- Agent: viruses, bacteria, parasites
- Portal of exit: method which agent leaves reservoir
- Mode of transmission: ways microorganisms travel from reservoir to host
- Portal of entry: sites of broken skin, mucous membranes
- Susceptible host: person who is not resistant or immune
Medical Asepsis is ?
the destruction of microorganisms after they leave the body
10% bleach solution consists of ?
- 1 part bleach
- 9 parts water
Surgical Asepsis ?
ALL pathogens are destroyed
Name 4 methods of sterilization
- Dry heat
- Steam (autoclave)
The #1 way to prevent the spread of infections ?
Hand antisepsis requires the use of _____ to remove or kill microorganisms
PPE's consist of ?
- Face shields
Standard precautions is a method to prevent direct contact with ?
blood and body fluids
What is the infection that a pt acquires in the hospital ?
Droplet precautions means the pt's droplets travel only short distance, how far ?
3 feet or less
The PDR, physicaians desk reference, is for what ?
correct spelling and drug info
- by mouth
- by rectum
- every day
- 2 times a day
- 3 times a day
- 4 times a day
- after meals
- each night at bedtime
- as needed
The heart is located ?
in the thoracic cavity between lungs behind sternum
heart skeleton ?
- innermost layer of the heart
- middle layer of the heart
- 4 rings of connective tissue surrounds heart
outermost layer of the heart
The right side of the heart pumps ??
deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein into the lungs
The left side of the heart ?
pumps oxygenated blood thru the pulmonary artery
The right atrium......
receives deoxygenated blood from the body via superior vena cava
The right ventricle.....
receives deoxygenated blood from right atrium via tricuspid valve, to the pulmonary valve out to the pulmonary artery for oxygenation.
The pulmonary arteries are the ONLY arteries in the body that carry ______ blood
The left atrium receives oxgenated blood from the ......
right and left pulmonary veins
The pulmonary veins are the ONLY veins that carry ____ blood
The left ventricle receives the oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it ......
to the body thru the aorta
The largest artery of the body is ?
The atrioventricular valves (AV) are located ?
between the atria and ventricles
The tricuspid valve is located ?
between rt atium and rt ventricle
The bicuspid valve, aka mitral valve is located ?
between the lt atrium and lt ventricle
Murmurs are caused by diseases of ?
the valves or other structural abnormalities, the sounds are produced by the closing of the valves
T or F : Edema means there is no accumulation of fluid in the tissue
List the correct order of blood draw ?
- Blood cultures
- Light blue
- Royal blue
A pt's rights include all of the following EXCEPT ?
- right to cure **
- right to refuse tx
- right to consent to tx
- right to privacy
Which of the following is NOT part of the vial signs of body function ?
- weight **
In the axillary method of measuring temp, the temp is taken ?
in the underarm
Which method of sterilization is used for instruments that corrode easily ?
dry heat sterilization
Which of the following is a unit of measure on a standard prescription ?
The Q wave if present, is always ?
The 1st electrical implse that is recorded on the ECG paper during a normal cardiac cycle is the ?
An obese pt sent for blood work, which vein is more likely to be used ?
Collection devices used in skin punctures are ?
How far above the site of draw is the tourniquet placed ?
What is used to chill specimen in transport ?
The tube of choice for glucose testing is ?
The major parts of a routine urinalysis are :
physical, chemical, and microscopic
The EKG records :
electrical activity of the heart
How many stages are there to Hemostasis ?
Several wave forms
Movement away from the heart
a wave form and a segment
a line between wave forms
Brings blood to the heart from upper body
superior vena cava
receives deoxygenated blood returning to the heart via superior vena cava
only carries oxygenated blood
pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
located between the right atrium and the right ventricle
brings blood to the heart from the lower body
inferior vena cava
located between the left atrium and the left ventricle
bicuspid or mitral valve
located between the left ventricle and the aorta
receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
only carries deoxygenated blood
pumps blood out of the heart
AV node is located
at the posterior septal wall of the right atrium just above the tricuspid valve
Bundle of His is found at the....
superior portion of the interventricular septum
Purkinje fibers are found within the ....
ventricular endocardium, it consist of a network of small conduction fibers that delivers the electrical impulses to the ventricular myocardium
SA node is found in the ...
upper portion of the right atrial wall just below the opening of the superior vena cava
Bundle branches function is to ....
conduct the electrical impulse to the Purkinje fibers
The first negative deflection that follows the first positive deflection is
The initial negative deflection
A recorded tracing of the heart
A wire that connects the electrode to the cardiac monitor
The 1st positive deflection
The deflection produced by atrial depolarization
The deflection seen following the T wave but preceding the next P wave
A paper, plastic, or metal sensor placed on the pt's skin in a specific location
The deflection produced by the ventricle repolarizing
Represents ventricular depolarization (activation)