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What are the 2 type of capillary Beds?
- True Capillaries
- Vascular shunt
What are the different types of capillaries?
- Continuous-Almost Impermeable
- Fenestrated- More Permeable
- Sinusoids- Most Permeable
Describe Continuous Capillaries
- Most Common
- Almost Impermeable
- Found in Skin and Muscle
- Have Tight Junctions-rendering capillary nearly impermeable
- Have intercellular Clefts- allow certain substances through
- Forms the Blood-Brain Barrier
Describe Fenetrated Capilaries
- Found at:
- Sm Intestine
- Enocrine Glands
- More Permeable
- Found in
- Bone marrow, lymphoid tissue/organs, highly modifies leaky capillaries
- Most Permeable
Describe veins in terms of the physiology of Blood Flow
- Veins the limbs have valves, while veins in the central cavity do not
- These allow for no back flow of blood to occur
What are Vericose Veins?
- Most common in pregnancy and obesity
- Tend to be superficial veins
Define Blood Flow
volume of blood that passes through a vessel, organ or entire circulatory system in a given period of time
Define Blood Pressure
Force exerted per unit area on the wall of the blood vessel
Opposition to blood flow, measure of friction that blood encounters
What is the equation for Blood Flow?
Change in Blood Pressure/ Peripheral Resistance
What is Blood Pressure greatest, when is it lowest?
- Greatest at closer to the heart
- Lowest at distal to the heart
If Resistance increases, what happens to Blood Flow?
- Blood Flow will decrease
- They are inversely proportional
What affects Resistance?
- Viscosity of Blood
- Length of Blood Vessel
- Diameter of Blood Vessel
What is the equation for Blood Pressure?
Blood Flow x Peripheral resistance
What is the equation for Mean Arterial Pressure?
Diastolic Pressure + (Pulse Pressue/3)
What is the flow of blood?
LV>Elastic Arteries>Aorta/Branching Arteries> Branch to given muscular artery> Brance to Arterioles> Branch to Capillary Beds> Venules> R.Atrium
When does the biggest drop in Blood Pressure occur?
At the Arteriorles
What Anatomical Factors help the Blood get back to the heart?
- Valves- Moves blood forwards
- Diameter- Vein diameter is greater, leading to less resistance
What Physiological factors help blood get back to the Heart?
- Muscular Pumps-Contract to move Blood
- Respiratory Pump-contracts diaphragm, whichc increases pressure in abdomen and decreases it in the thoracic
What are the equations for Blood Pressure?
- BP= BF x PR
- CO= HR x SV
What are the Short Term Factors that influence Blood Pressure?
- Neural Factors
- Chemical Factors
What are the Neural Factors that affect Blood Pressure?
- Neural Short Term Factors influencing BP
- Located in carotid sinus and aortic arch
- Respond to pressure in these areas
- If BP changes these receptors are stimulated, nerve impulses are sent to the Medulla. Which contains the cardio Inhibitory/acceleratory center and Vasomotors
If BP increases what is stimulated in the Medulla by the Baroreceptors
Cardio Inhibitory Center
- Peripheral Chemoreceptors are in the carotid and aortic arches
- Central Chemoreceptors are in the Medullary Neruons
- Responds to change in chemical make up of the blood
Describe the process in the Baroreceptros in BP Decreases
- Baroreceptors are stimulates>
- Inhibit Cardio Inhibitory System, which decreases Parasympathetic, which increases HR
- Stimulate Cardio Acceleratory, which increases sympathetic, which increases HR
- Stimulate Vasomotor, Causing vasoconstriction which increases PR, which increases BP
Describe the process in the Chemoreceptors if O2 decreases, Ph decreases and CO2 increases
- Inhibits Cardio Inhibitory, Decreases parasympathetic, increasing HR
- Stimulates Cardio Acceleratory Center, increases Sympathetic, increasing HR
- Stimulates Vasomotor, causing vasoconstriction, increases PR, which increases BP
Describe the Parasympathetic affects of Heart Rate
- Stimulating it will cause decreased HR
- Inhibiting it will cause increased HR
Describe the Sympathetic effects on HR
- Stimulating will increase HR
- Inhibity will decrease HR
Describe the Vasomotor's effect on BP
- Stimulation causes Vasoconstriction, increses PR, increases BP
- Inhibiting causes Vasodilation, decreases PR, decreases BP
What are the 8 Short Term Chemical Factors affecting HR?
- Adrenal Medulla Hormones
- Atrial Nutriuretic Factor
- Antidiuretic hormone
- angiotensin II
- Endothelium Derived factors
- Inflammatory Chemicals
What type of Factor is Adrenal Medulla Hormone in effecting BP, and how does it effect BP?
- Chemical Factor
- Stress affects the Adrenal Medulla Hormones which release:
- Norepinephrine, causing Vasoconstriction, therefore increasing BP.
- Epinephrine, causeing increased CO and general vasoconstriction
What type of factor is nicotine and how does it affect BP?
- Chemical Factor
- Mimics Norepinephrine and Epinephrine, causing Vasoconstriction
What type of factor is Atrial Nutriuretic factor, and how does it affect BP?
- Chemical Factor
- Antagonizes Aldosterone, which decreases Na retention and decreases water reabsorption. Therefore decreases BV and decreases BP
What type of factor is Antidiruetic Hormone and how does it affect BP?
- Causes Kidneys to conserve water, therefore increases BV and increasing BP.
- Also cause Vasoconstriction, causing increased PR, and increasing BP
What type of factor is Angiotensin II and how does it affect BP?
- Chemical factor
- Causes general vasoconstriction.
- Renin converts Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I, which is converted to Angiotensin II in the pulmonary capillaries
What type of facor is Endothelilum Derived Factos, and how do they affect BP
- Chemical Factors
- a. endothelin>Vasoconstriction> increases BP
- b. Nitric Oxide>Vasodilation>Decreases BP
How does alcohol affect BP?
- Inhibits ADH> Decreased BP
- Inhibits Vasomotor center> Vasodilation> Decrease BP
How do inflammatory Chemicals affect BP?
Histamine and Kinins> Vasodilation> Increases Capillary Permeability > Decreases BP
What are the longterm Mechanisms for BP control?
- Baroreceptors> +Sympathetic>Kidney (IG Cells)>Renin>Angiotensin II> Vasoconstriction> + PR
- Angiotensin II> +ADH> retain water> + BV
What are the two types of hypertenstion?
What is Primary Hyertension and what are the risk factors?
- BP > 140/90
- Unknown cause, and generally comes with age
- Risk Factors: Race/Obesity/Age/Diet/Stress/Smoking
Whatis Secondary Hypertension?
Caused by Stenosis of Renal Artery or Pheochromocytoma ( a caticolomin (vasoconstrictor) secreting tumor usually in arenal medulla
What is the velocity of Blood flow related to? and where is it greatest? Least?
- related to Total cross sectional area of blood vessels
- Greatest in capillaries
- Least in Aorta
What are Capillary Dynamics?
- The 2 forces acting on Capillary walls
- Hydrostatic and Osmotic
What is a hydrostatic force?
Force pushing liquid out
What is an Osmotic Force?
Force pulling liquid in
What is the lymphatic system made of?
- Lymphatic Vessels
- Lymphoid cells
- Lymphoid tissue
- Lymphoid Organs
What is a Lymphatic Capillary?
A Microscopic blind ended vessel that weaves between the tissue cells and the systemic capillaries in the loose CT of the body
What does the lymphatic Capillary do?
Contains mini valves, when the interstitial fluid increases, the mini valves open and the fluid is forced into the lymphatic capillary. Once the lymphatic capillary is full the mini valves are forced closed and the liquid is now called lymph.
What happens to lymph after it enters the lymphatic capillary?
Lymph is filtered in the lymph nodes and is eventually returned to systemic circulation
What is the path the lymph flows through?
Lymphatic Capillaries>Lymph Collecting vessels>Lymphatic Trunk> R. Lymphatic Duct, Thoracic Duct> Systemic Circuit
Where does the R. Lymphatic Duct drain from?
The Right Arm, Right Thorax, and Right side of the head
Where does the R. Lymphatic Duct return the fluid into the systemic circuit?
Junction of Right Sublcavian Vein and Right Internal Jugular Vein
Where does the Thoracic Duct drain from?
Everything that the R. Lymphatic Duct does not drain from
Where does the thoracic duct return the lymph into the systemic circuit?
Junction of Left Subclavian Vein and Left INternal Jugular Vein
What are the Lymphoid Cells?
- Plasma Cells
- Reticular Cells
What do the T-Lymphocytes do?
- Capable of attacking and destroying antigens
- Help manage immune response
What do the B-Lymphocytes do?
Give rise to plasma cells
What do plasma cells do?
What do Macrophage Cells do?
- Phagocytic Cells
- Help Activate T-Lymphocytes
What do Reticular Cells do?
Produce reticular fibers that form a network to support other cells of the lymphatic and immune systems
What is lymphoid tissue?
Loose Reticular CT
Where is Diffused Loose Reticular CT located?
Found in ALL organs
Where is condensed loose reticular CT found?
In Lymphoid Organs
What are the Lymphoid Organs?
- Thymus Gland
- Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
Where do the lymphnodes cluster?
- Axillary-Under Arm
What is the purpose of a lymphnode?
To filter lymph
Where is the Spleen?
Left Abdominopelvic cavity below diaphragm
What is the purpose of the Spleen?
- To cleans blood, remove aged and defective RBC, bacteria, toxins etc.
- Produces blood in fetus
- Stores and Releases RBC breakdown products
- Stores and Releases platelets
Where is the Thymus Gland?
In lower neck, extends into mediastinum, deep into the sternum
Why is the thymus gland important to the immune system?
T-Lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the thymus
What are the Mucosa Assocaited Lymphoid Tissue?
- Peyer's patches
- Walls of Bronchii
What are the 4 types of tonsils?
Pharyngeal, Palatine, Linguinal, Tubal
Where is the appendix?
At the cecum
Where are Peyer's Patches?
at the ileam
What are the two different types of immunity?
What are the 7 first line of defenses?
- Pseudostratified Ciliate Columnar Epithelium
- Nasal Hairs
How does skin act as a part of the immune system?
- Physical Barrier, it covers continuously
- Chemical Barrier, secrets oil that protects against bacterial growth
- Biological Barrier, had Dendrinic Cells- antigen presenting cells
How does Saliva, tears and blood act as part of the immune system?
Has Lysozyme, and antibacterial enzyme
How does Gastric Acidity act as part of the immune system?
pH of stomach is very low and the high acidity hinders bacteria
How does urine act as part of the immune system
It's acidic, keeps microorganisms in check
How does PCCE act as part of the immune system?
- Mucous secreting goblet cells capture particles and bacteria
- Cilia moves it to the pharynx
How do Nasal Hairs act as part of the immune system?
Filter the Air
What are the 5 second line of defenses for the immune system?
- Phagocytic Cells
- NK Cells
- Antimicrobial Proteins
What do phagocytic cells do?
What do NK cells do as a part of the immune system?
Large Granuale Lymphocytes that destroy infected cells
What are the 2 types of antimicrobial proteins?
- Compliment Proteins
What is interferon and what are the different types
- Produced when a virus is present, protects other non-infected cells
- Gamma-Produced by lymphocytes
- Alpha-Leukocytes (most common)
- Beta- Fibroblast
Where are compliment proteins found, and what do they do?
- In the Bood
- Opsonization-Enhances phagocytosis
- Enhances inflammation
- Lysis-drills into cell, destroying it
How does inflammation work as part of the immune system?
- Local Response to tissue damage
- When a tissue is damaged it releases chemical mediators
What are the four signs of inflammation?
How does fever work as part of the immune system?
- Systemic Response
- Macrophages and Leukocyts release pyrogens which increase temperature and metabolism
What are the 2 types of Acquired/Specific immunity?
- Humoral: B-Lymphocytes make plasma cells to make antibodies
- Cell Mediated: T-Lymphocytes
What are the 4 types of Humoral immunity?
- Natrual Active
- Natural Passive
- Artificial Active
- Artificial Passive
What is Natural Active Humoral Immunity?
When a person is naturally infected and your body produces antibodies
What is Natural Passive Humoral Immunity?
When a mother's antibodies flow into the fetus
What is Artifical Active Humoral Immunity?
Vaccination with a dead/weakened virus
What is Artifical Passive Humoral Immunity?
Vaccination with antibodies, it only lasts for a certain amount of time because there are no Memory cells
What are antibodies?
Plasma protein immunoglobulins
What are the two types of antigens?
What are complete antigens?
Antigens that exhibit immunogenicity and reactivity, they are usually large and complex
What is immunogenicity?
Ability to proliferate lymphocytes and antibodies
What is reactivity?
Ability to react with lymphocytes and antibodies
What are incomplete antigens?
- Antigens that are reactive but do not have immunogenicity.
- They usually bind with a protein in the body and then obtain immunogenicity
What are the two regions of an antibody?
- Variable region- binds to antigen
- Constant Region- Binds to Mast Cells and Basophils
What are the classes of an antibody?
- Immunoglobulin M
- Immunoglobulin A
- Immunoglobulin D
- Immunoglobulin G
- Immunoglobulin E
What does Immunoglobulin M do?
- First antibody released into the blood
- In the primary response
- B-Lymphocyte receptor as a polymer
What does Immunoglobulin A do?
found in body secretions that bath body surfaces
What does Immunoglobulin D do?
What does Immunoglobulin G do?
- Most abundant in plasma
- Able to cross placenta
What does Immunoglobulin E do?
- Found in allergic reactions
- Binds to Mast Cells and Basophils that contain Histamine
Where do B-Lymphocytes become immunocompetent?
Where do T-Lymphocytes become immunocompetent?
What are the 5 things needed from the antigen handout?
- Macrophages and B-Lymphocytes are Antigen Presenting Cells
- Macrophages and B-Lymphocytes have MHC-II complexes
- All other cells have MHC I
- Cytotoxin T Cell=CD8 Cell = T Killer Cell
- Activated T Helper Cell = CD4 cell
what happens if an antigen is a virus?
The virus will attache to a host cell, the host cell will take some of the virus's protein and place it on the MHC I comoplex. A cytotoxin cell will recoginze the antigen release perforin and destroy the entire cell
What are the 3 types of reactions to an Antigen-Antibody complex?
What happens during Neutralization?
An antibody coats an antigen and prevents it from working
What occurs during Agglutination?
A pentamer Immunoglobulin M binds to an antigen on the surface of a RBC and it clumps. The RBC is broken down causing cell lysis and the hemoglobin is broken down relasing bilirubin
What occurds during precipitation?
Antibodies group soluble antigens together
What is Allograft?
Between 2 people, rejection
What is autograft?
What is isograft?
identical Twins, accept
What is xenograft?