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  1. What are the 2 type of capillary Beds?
    • True Capillaries
    • Vascular shunt
  2. What are the different types of capillaries?
    • Continuous-Almost Impermeable
    • Fenestrated- More Permeable
    • Sinusoids- Most Permeable
  3. Describe Continuous Capillaries
    • Most Common
    • Almost Impermeable
    • Found in Skin and Muscle
    • Have Tight Junctions-rendering capillary nearly impermeable
    • Have intercellular Clefts- allow certain substances through
    • Forms the Blood-Brain Barrier
  4. Describe Fenetrated Capilaries
    • Found at:
    • Kidney
    • Sm Intestine
    • Enocrine Glands
    • More Permeable
  5. Describe Sinusoids
    • Found in
    • Bone marrow, lymphoid tissue/organs, highly modifies leaky capillaries
    • Most Permeable
  6. Describe veins in terms of the physiology of Blood Flow
    • Veins the limbs have valves, while veins in the central cavity do not
    • These allow for no back flow of blood to occur
  7. What are Vericose Veins?
    • Most common in pregnancy and obesity
    • Tend to be superficial veins
  8. Define Blood Flow
    volume of blood that passes through a vessel, organ or entire circulatory system in a given period of time
  9. Define Blood Pressure
    Force exerted per unit area on the wall of the blood vessel
  10. Define Resistance
    Opposition to blood flow, measure of friction that blood encounters
  11. What is the equation for Blood Flow?
    Change in Blood Pressure/ Peripheral Resistance
  12. What is Blood Pressure greatest, when is it lowest?
    • Greatest at closer to the heart
    • Lowest at distal to the heart
  13. If Resistance increases, what happens to Blood Flow?
    • Blood Flow will decrease
    • They are inversely proportional
  14. What affects Resistance?
    • Viscosity of Blood
    • Length of Blood Vessel
    • Diameter of Blood Vessel
  15. What is the equation for Blood Pressure?
    Blood Flow x Peripheral resistance
  16. What is the equation for Mean Arterial Pressure?
    Diastolic Pressure + (Pulse Pressue/3)
  17. What is the flow of blood?
    LV>Elastic Arteries>Aorta/Branching Arteries> Branch to given muscular artery> Brance to Arterioles> Branch to Capillary Beds> Venules> R.Atrium
  18. When does the biggest drop in Blood Pressure occur?
    At the Arteriorles
  19. What Anatomical Factors help the Blood get back to the heart?
    • Valves- Moves blood forwards
    • Diameter- Vein diameter is greater, leading to less resistance
  20. What Physiological factors help blood get back to the Heart?
    • Muscular Pumps-Contract to move Blood
    • Respiratory Pump-contracts diaphragm, whichc increases pressure in abdomen and decreases it in the thoracic
  21. What are the equations for Blood Pressure?
    • BP= BF x PR
    • BF=CO
    • CO= HR x SV
  22. What are the Short Term Factors that influence Blood Pressure?
    • Neural Factors
    • Chemical Factors
  23. What are the Neural Factors that affect Blood Pressure?
    • Baroreceptors
    • Chemoreceptors
  24. Describe Baroreceptors
    • Neural Short Term Factors influencing BP
    • Located in carotid sinus and aortic arch
    • Respond to pressure in these areas
    • If BP changes these receptors are stimulated, nerve impulses are sent to the Medulla. Which contains the cardio Inhibitory/acceleratory center and Vasomotors
  25. If BP increases what is stimulated in the Medulla by the Baroreceptors
    Cardio Inhibitory Center
  26. Describe chemoreceptors
    • Peripheral Chemoreceptors are in the carotid and aortic arches
    • Central Chemoreceptors are in the Medullary Neruons
    • Responds to change in chemical make up of the blood
  27. Describe the process in the Baroreceptros in BP Decreases
    • Baroreceptors are stimulates>
    • Inhibit Cardio Inhibitory System, which decreases Parasympathetic, which increases HR
    • Stimulate Cardio Acceleratory, which increases sympathetic, which increases HR
    • Stimulate Vasomotor, Causing vasoconstriction which increases PR, which increases BP
  28. Describe the process in the Chemoreceptors if O2 decreases, Ph decreases and CO2 increases
    • Inhibits Cardio Inhibitory, Decreases parasympathetic, increasing HR
    • Stimulates Cardio Acceleratory Center, increases Sympathetic, increasing HR
    • Stimulates Vasomotor, causing vasoconstriction, increases PR, which increases BP
  29. Describe the Parasympathetic affects of Heart Rate
    • Stimulating it will cause decreased HR
    • Inhibiting it will cause increased HR
  30. Describe the Sympathetic effects on HR
    • Stimulating will increase HR
    • Inhibity will decrease HR
  31. Describe the Vasomotor's effect on BP
    • Stimulation causes Vasoconstriction, increses PR, increases BP
    • Inhibiting causes Vasodilation, decreases PR, decreases BP
  32. What are the 8 Short Term Chemical Factors affecting HR?
    • Adrenal Medulla Hormones
    • Nicotine
    • Atrial Nutriuretic Factor
    • Antidiuretic hormone
    • angiotensin II
    • Endothelium Derived factors
    • Alcohol
    • Inflammatory Chemicals
  33. What type of Factor is Adrenal Medulla Hormone in effecting BP, and how does it effect BP?
    • Chemical Factor
    • Stress affects the Adrenal Medulla Hormones which release:
    • Norepinephrine, causing Vasoconstriction, therefore increasing BP.
    • Epinephrine, causeing increased CO and general vasoconstriction
  34. What type of factor is nicotine and how does it affect BP?
    • Chemical Factor
    • Mimics Norepinephrine and Epinephrine, causing Vasoconstriction
  35. What type of factor is Atrial Nutriuretic factor, and how does it affect BP?
    • Chemical Factor
    • Antagonizes Aldosterone, which decreases Na retention and decreases water reabsorption. Therefore decreases BV and decreases BP
  36. What type of factor is Antidiruetic Hormone and how does it affect BP?
    • Causes Kidneys to conserve water, therefore increases BV and increasing BP.
    • Also cause Vasoconstriction, causing increased PR, and increasing BP
  37. What type of factor is Angiotensin II and how does it affect BP?
    • Chemical factor
    • Causes general vasoconstriction.
    • Renin converts Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I, which is converted to Angiotensin II in the pulmonary capillaries
  38. What type of facor is Endothelilum Derived Factos, and how do they affect BP
    • Chemical Factors
    • a. endothelin>Vasoconstriction> increases BP
    • b. Nitric Oxide>Vasodilation>Decreases BP
  39. How does alcohol affect BP?
    • Inhibits ADH> Decreased BP
    • Inhibits Vasomotor center> Vasodilation> Decrease BP
  40. How do inflammatory Chemicals affect BP?
    Histamine and Kinins> Vasodilation> Increases Capillary Permeability > Decreases BP
  41. What are the longterm Mechanisms for BP control?
    • Baroreceptors> +Sympathetic>Kidney (IG Cells)>Renin>Angiotensin II> Vasoconstriction> + PR
    • Angiotensin II> +ADH> retain water> + BV
  42. What are the two types of hypertenstion?
    • Primary/Idiopathic/essential
    • Secondary
  43. What is Primary Hyertension and what are the risk factors?
    • BP > 140/90
    • Unknown cause, and generally comes with age
    • Risk Factors: Race/Obesity/Age/Diet/Stress/Smoking
  44. Whatis Secondary Hypertension?
    Caused by Stenosis of Renal Artery or Pheochromocytoma ( a caticolomin (vasoconstrictor) secreting tumor usually in arenal medulla
  45. What is the velocity of Blood flow related to? and where is it greatest? Least?
    • related to Total cross sectional area of blood vessels
    • Greatest in capillaries
    • Least in Aorta
  46. What are Capillary Dynamics?
    • The 2 forces acting on Capillary walls
    • Hydrostatic and Osmotic
  47. What is a hydrostatic force?
    Force pushing liquid out
  48. What is an Osmotic Force?
    Force pulling liquid in
  49. What is the lymphatic system made of?
    • Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymphoid cells
    • Lymphoid tissue
    • Lymphoid Organs
  50. What is a Lymphatic Capillary?
    A Microscopic blind ended vessel that weaves between the tissue cells and the systemic capillaries in the loose CT of the body
  51. What does the lymphatic Capillary do?
    Contains mini valves, when the interstitial fluid increases, the mini valves open and the fluid is forced into the lymphatic capillary. Once the lymphatic capillary is full the mini valves are forced closed and the liquid is now called lymph.
  52. What happens to lymph after it enters the lymphatic capillary?
    Lymph is filtered in the lymph nodes and is eventually returned to systemic circulation
  53. What is the path the lymph flows through?
    Lymphatic Capillaries>Lymph Collecting vessels>Lymphatic Trunk> R. Lymphatic Duct, Thoracic Duct> Systemic Circuit
  54. Where does the R. Lymphatic Duct drain from?
    The Right Arm, Right Thorax, and Right side of the head
  55. Where does the R. Lymphatic Duct return the fluid into the systemic circuit?
    Junction of Right Sublcavian Vein and Right Internal Jugular Vein
  56. Where does the Thoracic Duct drain from?
    Everything that the R. Lymphatic Duct does not drain from
  57. Where does the thoracic duct return the lymph into the systemic circuit?
    Junction of Left Subclavian Vein and Left INternal Jugular Vein
  58. What are the Lymphoid Cells?
    • T-Lymphocytes
    • B-Lymphocytes
    • Plasma Cells
    • Macrophage
    • Reticular Cells
  59. What do the T-Lymphocytes do?
    • Capable of attacking and destroying antigens
    • Help manage immune response
  60. What do the B-Lymphocytes do?
    Give rise to plasma cells
  61. What do plasma cells do?
    form antibodies
  62. What do Macrophage Cells do?
    • Phagocytic Cells
    • Help Activate T-Lymphocytes
  63. What do Reticular Cells do?
    Produce reticular fibers that form a network to support other cells of the lymphatic and immune systems
  64. What is lymphoid tissue?
    Loose Reticular CT
  65. Where is Diffused Loose Reticular CT located?
    Found in ALL organs
  66. Where is condensed loose reticular CT found?
    In Lymphoid Organs
  67. What are the Lymphoid Organs?
    • Lymphnodes
    • Spleen
    • Thymus Gland
    • Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
  68. Where do the lymphnodes cluster?
    • Inguinal-Groin
    • Axillary-Under Arm
    • Cervical-Neck
  69. What is the purpose of a lymphnode?
    To filter lymph
  70. Where is the Spleen?
    Left Abdominopelvic cavity below diaphragm
  71. What is the purpose of the Spleen?
    • To cleans blood, remove aged and defective RBC, bacteria, toxins etc.
    • Produces blood in fetus
    • Stores and Releases RBC breakdown products
    • Stores and Releases platelets
  72. Where is the Thymus Gland?
    In lower neck, extends into mediastinum, deep into the sternum
  73. Why is the thymus gland important to the immune system?
    T-Lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the thymus
  74. What are the Mucosa Assocaited Lymphoid Tissue?
    • Tonsils
    • Appendix
    • Peyer's patches
    • Walls of Bronchii
  75. What are the 4 types of tonsils?
    Pharyngeal, Palatine, Linguinal, Tubal
  76. Where is the appendix?
    At the cecum
  77. Where are Peyer's Patches?
    at the ileam
  78. What are the two different types of immunity?
    • Natural/Innate
    • Acquired/Specific
  79. What are the 7 first line of defenses?
    • Skin
    • Saliva,Tears,Blood
    • VaginalAcididty
    • Urine
    • Pseudostratified Ciliate Columnar Epithelium
    • Nasal Hairs
  80. How does skin act as a part of the immune system?
    • Physical Barrier, it covers continuously
    • Chemical Barrier, secrets oil that protects against bacterial growth
    • Biological Barrier, had Dendrinic Cells- antigen presenting cells
  81. How does Saliva, tears and blood act as part of the immune system?
    Has Lysozyme, and antibacterial enzyme
  82. How does Gastric Acidity act as part of the immune system?
    pH of stomach is very low and the high acidity hinders bacteria
  83. How does urine act as part of the immune system
    It's acidic, keeps microorganisms in check
  84. How does PCCE act as part of the immune system?
    • Mucous secreting goblet cells capture particles and bacteria
    • Cilia moves it to the pharynx
  85. How do Nasal Hairs act as part of the immune system?
    Filter the Air
  86. What are the 5 second line of defenses for the immune system?
    • Phagocytic Cells
    • NK Cells
    • Antimicrobial Proteins
    • Inflammation
    • Fever
  87. What do phagocytic cells do?
    Eat Bacteria
  88. What do NK cells do as a part of the immune system?
    Large Granuale Lymphocytes that destroy infected cells
  89. What are the 2 types of antimicrobial proteins?
    • Interferon
    • Compliment Proteins
  90. What is interferon and what are the different types
    • Produced when a virus is present, protects other non-infected cells
    • Gamma-Produced by lymphocytes
    • Alpha-Leukocytes (most common)
    • Beta- Fibroblast
  91. Where are compliment proteins found, and what do they do?
    • In the Bood
    • Opsonization-Enhances phagocytosis
    • Enhances inflammation
    • Lysis-drills into cell, destroying it
  92. How does inflammation work as part of the immune system?
    • Local Response to tissue damage
    • When a tissue is damaged it releases chemical mediators
  93. What are the four signs of inflammation?
    • Rubor-Redness
    • Calor-heat
    • Tumor-Swelling
    • Dolor-Pain
  94. How does fever work as part of the immune system?
    • Systemic Response
    • Macrophages and Leukocyts release pyrogens which increase temperature and metabolism
  95. What are the 2 types of Acquired/Specific immunity?
    • Humoral: B-Lymphocytes make plasma cells to make antibodies
    • Cell Mediated: T-Lymphocytes
  96. What are the 4 types of Humoral immunity?
    • Natrual Active
    • Natural Passive
    • Artificial Active
    • Artificial Passive
  97. What is Natural Active Humoral Immunity?
    When a person is naturally infected and your body produces antibodies
  98. What is Natural Passive Humoral Immunity?
    When a mother's antibodies flow into the fetus
  99. What is Artifical Active Humoral Immunity?
    Vaccination with a dead/weakened virus
  100. What is Artifical Passive Humoral Immunity?
    Vaccination with antibodies, it only lasts for a certain amount of time because there are no Memory cells
  101. What are antibodies?
    Plasma protein immunoglobulins
  102. What are the two types of antigens?
    • Complete
    • Incomplete
  103. What are complete antigens?
    Antigens that exhibit immunogenicity and reactivity, they are usually large and complex
  104. What is immunogenicity?
    Ability to proliferate lymphocytes and antibodies
  105. What is reactivity?
    Ability to react with lymphocytes and antibodies
  106. What are incomplete antigens?
    • Antigens that are reactive but do not have immunogenicity.
    • They usually bind with a protein in the body and then obtain immunogenicity
  107. What are the two regions of an antibody?
    • Variable region- binds to antigen
    • Constant Region- Binds to Mast Cells and Basophils
  108. What are the classes of an antibody?
    • (MADGE)
    • Immunoglobulin M
    • Immunoglobulin A
    • Immunoglobulin D
    • Immunoglobulin G
    • Immunoglobulin E
  109. What does Immunoglobulin M do?
    • First antibody released into the blood
    • In the primary response
    • B-Lymphocyte receptor as a polymer
  110. What does Immunoglobulin A do?
    found in body secretions that bath body surfaces
  111. What does Immunoglobulin D do?
    B-Lymphocyte receptor
  112. What does Immunoglobulin G do?
    • Most abundant in plasma
    • Able to cross placenta
  113. What does Immunoglobulin E do?
    • Found in allergic reactions
    • Binds to Mast Cells and Basophils that contain Histamine
  114. Where do B-Lymphocytes become immunocompetent?
    Bone Marrow
  115. Where do T-Lymphocytes become immunocompetent?
  116. What are the 5 things needed from the antigen handout?
    • Macrophages and B-Lymphocytes are Antigen Presenting Cells
    • Macrophages and B-Lymphocytes have MHC-II complexes
    • All other cells have MHC I
    • Cytotoxin T Cell=CD8 Cell = T Killer Cell
    • Activated T Helper Cell = CD4 cell
  117. what happens if an antigen is a virus?
    The virus will attache to a host cell, the host cell will take some of the virus's protein and place it on the MHC I comoplex. A cytotoxin cell will recoginze the antigen release perforin and destroy the entire cell
  118. What are the 3 types of reactions to an Antigen-Antibody complex?
    • Neutralization
    • Agglutination
    • Precipitation
  119. What happens during Neutralization?
    An antibody coats an antigen and prevents it from working
  120. What occurs during Agglutination?
    A pentamer Immunoglobulin M binds to an antigen on the surface of a RBC and it clumps. The RBC is broken down causing cell lysis and the hemoglobin is broken down relasing bilirubin
  121. What occurds during precipitation?
    Antibodies group soluble antigens together
  122. What is Allograft?
    Between 2 people, rejection
  123. What is autograft?
    Self, Accept
  124. What is isograft?
    identical Twins, accept
  125. What is xenograft?
    Animal, rejection
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AP2- test 3
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