Biomechanics Unit 3 Knee, Ankle, Posture, & Gait

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wolfgar
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119210
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Biomechanics Unit 3 Knee, Ankle, Posture, & Gait
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2011-11-27 21:28:57
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Biomechanics Unit Knee Ankle Posture Gait
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Biomechanics Unit 3 Knee, Ankle, Posture, & Gait
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  1. What tissues resist Genu valgum of the Tibiofemoral joint?
    • Primary restraint
    • MCL ligament

    • Seondary restriants
    • Medial capsule
    • Semimembranosus tendon
    • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
    • Compression of lateral meniscus
    • Pes anserine tendons
    • Medial head of gastrocnemius
  2. What tissues resist Genu Varum of the tibiofemoral joint?
    • Primary restraint
    • Lateral collateral ligament (LCL)

    • Secondary restriant
    • IT band
    • Popliteus tendon
    • Biceps femoris tendon
    • Compression of medial meniscus
    • ACL and PCL
    • Lateral head of gastrocnemius
    • Lateral capsule
  3. What tissues try and resist Genu recurvatum of the knee?
    • Restraint
    • Anterior cruciate ligament
    • Oblique popliteal ligament
    • Arcuate popliteal ligament
    • Popliteus
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Semimembranosus
    • Posterior capsule
  4. Name the stabilization tissues of the knee capsule? and what they restrict?
    • Anterior
    • Patellar retinacular fibers
    • Patellar ligament
    • Quadriceps muscle

    • Medial - Resists extreme valgus movement
    • Posterior - Resists extreme hyperextension
    • Lateral - Resists extreme varus movement
  5. What does the ACL restrict?
    Resist anterior/posterior shear forces between tibia and femur

    Limits both medial and lateral rotation of tibia/femur

    • Limits extremes of all movements
    • Limits tibia on femur anterior translation
    • Femur on tibia posterior translation
  6. What does PCL restrict?
    Anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments assist PCL with function

    • Limits the extremes of all movementsLimits tibia on femur posterior translation
    • Femur on tibia anterior translation
    • Popliteus can minimize posterior tibial translation on the femur
    • Most fibers are taut at full flexion
    • Limits both medial and lateral rotation of tibia/femur
    • May be dependent on other forces acting on knee
  7. What does the MCL restrict?
    • Limits extremes of knee extension – assists when ACL is gone
    • Limits lateral rotation of tibia
  8. What does LCL limit?
    • Limits varus movement – best in extension when ligament is taut
    • Limits extremes of knee extension
    • Limits lateral rotation of tibia
  9. Name the Ligaments of the knee?
    • Capsule ligaments
    • PCL
    • ACL
    • MCL
    • LCL
    • Oblique popliteal ligament
    • Arcuate popliteal ligament
  10. What limits anterior tibial translation?
    • IT band
    • ACL
  11. What muscles help the menisics stabilize the knee in movement?
    Semimembranosus, Popliteus
  12. Name the functions of the Menisci?
    • Shock Absorber
    • Triple area of joint contact
    • Supports 50-70% of the total load across the human knee
    • Stabilize joint during motion
    • Reduce friction
    • Guide knee arthrokinematics
    • Limit anterior and posterior translation
  13. What attaches to the medial menisics? lateral menisics?
    • Medial
    • Attached to deep portion of MCL
    • Attached to semimembranosus
    • Attached to the ACL and PCL at the horns

    • Lateral
    • Attached to PCL via posterior meniscofemoral ligament
    • Attached to popliteus
  14. Explaine what happens in open versus closed chain actions of the screw home mechanism?
    Open chain – Tibia follows laterally curved medial femoral condyle resulting in lateral rotation of the tibia

    Closed chain – Femur follows a medially curved path on the tibia yielding internal rotation of femur
  15. What drives the screw home mechanism?
    Driven by: Shape of medial femoral condyle – extends farther anterior than lateral femoral condyle

    Roll/glide stops first on lateral side but medial side keeps going

    Passive tension in cruciate ligamentsLateral pull of quadriceps
  16. Name the non quad muscle that can extend the knee? explain how they do it?
    Soleus – weight bearing, soleus pulls the tibia posteriorly Resists anterior tibial translation

    Gluteus Maximus – weight bearing, gluts pull the femur posteriorly on the tibia Creates a relative anterior tibial shear
  17. What tissues stabilize the proximal and distal tibiofibular joint?
    • Proximal TF joint
    • Stabilizing tissue
    • Capsule Anterior (superior) tibiofibular ligament
    • Posterior (superior) tibiofibular ligament
    • Interosseous membrane

    • Distal TF joint
    • Stabilizing tissueCapsule Anterior (superior) tibiofibular ligament
    • Posterior (superior) tibiofibular ligament
    • Interosseous membrane

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