What occurs during the electron transport chain (ETC)
electrons are moved to the stroma
What is the stroma?
solution surrounding thylakoids
What is the purpose of splitting water during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
It restores electrons in the thylakoid membrane. The oxygen from the water is then given off.by the plant.
What happens to electrons at the end of the electron transport chain (ETC)
It goes to the stroma side of the thylakoid membrane
What is sunlight used for in the light reactions of photosynthesis?
it provides energy
Explain the relationship between the thylakoid membrane and grana.
a stack of thylakoid membranes is called a granom while more than one is a grana
Give two alternative names for the Calvin Cycle.
Dark reactions or light independant reactions.
What occurs during the Calvin Cycle?
CO2 + RuBP --> 6 carbon sugars. It is split into 3 carbon sugars PGA. ATP converts PGA into PGAL which makes glucose or more RuBP (Some PGAL is recycled into RuBP and some is usedto make organic compounds.
What is the difference between a C3 and C4 plant?
C3 use dark reactions normally
C4 keep their stomata part closed and occur in hot dry environments
Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered pathways - (biochemical pathways).
They have multiple steps in which the last product created is used in the next step.
What is the formula for the splitting of water?
H20>2e_ +2H+ +1/2 02
Where are the photosystems and electron transport chains located?
In the stroma
The energy that is used to establish the proton gradient across thethylakoid membrane comes from the _______?
splitting of water
Why does the rate of photosynthesis increase, peak, and then decrease as temperature increases?
The temperature gives it more and more energy then starts to stop working as the temperature overheats it.
Why do organisms need energy?
They need energy for their parts to function and live.
Explain two ways that humans are dependentent upon photosynthesis
We eat plants.
We breath oxygen that the plants create.
What is the energy molecule of the body?
What is photosynthesis?
The process where glucose molecules are made.
Where is energy stored?
In the third (or last) phosphate bond
How (or when) is ADP formed?
ADP is formed when the third phosphate bond is broken.
Where are large mounts of energy stored?
In the last phosphate bond.
__________ is required for many cell processes.
When ATP loses a phosphate group, what does it become?
Photosynthesis takes carbon dioxide and water and converts it into _______ and _____________?
gluecose and oxygen
Light reactions convert _________ to ____________.
light energy to chemical energy
What do light reactions produce?
What is ATP used for?
Fuels dark reactions
An electron that has lost its energy is transported to where?
the stoma in chloroplasts
C4 Pathway - describe
Allows plants to fix C02 into a carbon compound. Plants in hot dry areas use this process. Stomata are partially closed.
CAM plants - describe
Open stomata during the night to catch C02 and close them during the day to reduce water loss. Fix C02 into compounds then release each day.