pharm

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Author:
amcnutt5
ID:
119218
Filename:
pharm
Updated:
2011-11-27 17:35:02
Tags:
anti infectives
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Description:
macrolides, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones
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  1. macrolides mechanism of action
    inhibits bacterial protein synthesis
  2. erythromycin (E-mycin)--special considerations
    • macrolide
    • pcn sub when allergy
    • multiple drug interactions
    • hepatoxicity
    • dilute iv solution to aviod hurting tissue
  3. azithromycin (Zithromax)
    macrolide
  4. clarithromycin (Biaxin)
    macrolides
  5. dirithromycin (dynabac)
    macrolides
  6. adverse effects of macrolides
    Gi disturbances, ototoxicity, heptotoxicity, superinfections (broad spectrum abx), dyrhythmias
  7. considerations for aminogylcosides
    • for serious uti and nosocomial infections
    • worry about ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
    • peak and trough levels
  8. amikacin (Amikin)
    aminoglycosides
  9. gentamicin
    aminoglycosides
  10. tobramycin
    aminoglycosides
  11. streptomycin
    aminoglycosides
  12. neomycin
    aminoglycosides
  13. Tetracyclines
    • inhibit bacterial protein sythesis
    • can interfere with absorbtion (except Doxy and Mino)
    • used for acne in us alot
    • expired is toxic
    • prego D
    • discoloration of teeth if given during develpment
  14. demeclocycline (Declomycin)
    tetracycline
  15. doxycycline (Vibramycin)
    tetracycline
  16. minocycline (Minocin)
    Tetracycline
  17. Vancomycin
    • macrolide
    • affects bacterial cell wall permeability
    • gram + only
    • only anaerobic is c. diff
    • save for MRSA or gram+ PCN allergy pts
    • SE: red man syndrome, ototoxicity, renal toxicity
  18. telavancin (Vibativ)
    • macrolides
    • new class r/t vanco for MRSA
    • given IV but no need for monitoring
    • can cause inc serum creatinine
    • can prolong QT interval
  19. Aminoglycosides--SE and considerations
    nephrotoxic, ototoxic--associated with trough levels and length of therapy great than 10 days and pre-existing renal dysfunction
  20. Fluoroquinolones (Quinolones)
    • Broad spectrum
    • interferes with enzyme DNA gyrase
    • antacids and iron preparatons can decrease absorbtion
    • mtr for superinfections
    • risk of photosensitivity
    • SE: dizziness, N/V/D, rash, abd cramps
  21. levoflaxacin (Levaquin)
    fluoroquinolones
  22. ciproflaxacin (Cipro)
    fluoroquinolones
  23. moxifloxacin (Avelox)
    fluoroquinolones
  24. ofloxacin(floxin)
    fluoroquinolones
  25. TB Tx phases
    • 1. two mos of isonaizid, rifampion (Rifadin), pyrazinamide (pza) and ethambutol (Myambutol) qd
    • 2. 4 mos of isonaizide and rifampin 2/3 times per week
    • Treatment for 6-12 mos
  26. metronidazole (Flagyl)
    • antiprotazoals
    • broad spectrum antimicrobial
    • sometimes used for prophylaxis
    • SE: darkening of urine, metallic taste, NV dry mouth
    • AE: CNS symptoms like numbness, ataxia or szs
    • disulfiram reaction with ETOH
    • inhibits inactivation fo coumadin

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