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(Reversible Q&A) Intro to organic Chemistry Terms
The study of compounds containing carbon.
A compound containing an -OH (hydroxyl) group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
An -OH group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
An organic compound in which one, two, or three hydrogens of ammonia are replaced by carbon groups; RNH
NH, or R
NH, or R
A C=O group
A compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to a hydrogen; a -CHO group
A compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon groups
A -COOH group
A compound containing a -COOH group
A derivative of a carboxylic acid in which the H of the carboxyl group is replaced by a carbon group
A saturated hydrocarbon whose carbon atoms are arranged in a chain
A compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atons
A hydrocarbon that contains only carbon-carbon single bonds
No an aromatic hydrocarbon
(Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes... Not benzene or arenes)
(also known as structural isomers)
Compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atoms
A group derived by removing a hydrogen from an alkane; given the symbol R-
A symbol used to represent an alkyl group
A saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbon atoms bonded to form a ring.
Any three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule that results from rotation about a single bond.
A position on a chair conformation of a cyclohexane ring that extends from the ring roughly perpendicular to the imaginary axis of the ring. (slanted/sideways)
A position on a chair conformation of a cyclohexane ring that extends from the ring parallel to the imaginary axis of the ring. (straight up/down)
The most stable conformation of a cyclopentane
The most stable conformation of a cyclohexane
(also known as Geometric isomers)
Isomers that have the same connectivity of their atoms but a different arrangement of their atoms in space due to the presence of either a ring or a carbon-carbon double bond.
A tetrahedral atom, most commonly carbon, at which exchange of two groups produces a stereoisomer.
Refers to the arrangement of atoms about a stereocenter; that is, to the relative arrangement of parts of a molecule in space.
Isomers that have the same connectivity of their atoms but a different orientation of their atoms in space.
Physical Properties of Alkenes
: The only forces of attraction are London dispersion forces.
Insoluble in water
: but soluble in each other and in other nonpolar organic solvents such as toluene.
Less Dense than Water
: All liquid and solid
At room temperature, low molecular-weight alkanes are gases, higher-molecular-weight are liquids, and very-high-molecular-weight are waxy solids.
The least branched isomers generally has the highest boiling point
The most branched isomers generally has the lowest boiling point
Oxidation of Alkanes to Carbon Dioxide and Water
An exothermic reaction, is the basis for our use of them as sources of heat and power.
+ 5 O
--yields--> 3 CO
+ 4 H
O + 530 kcal/mol (heat)
Halogenation of Alkanes
Reactions with cholorine or bromine results in the substitution of a halogen atom for a hydrogen.
heat or light
Cl + HCl
An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon double bond
An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon triple bone
A saturated hydrocarbon is converted to an unsaturated hydrocarbon plus H
Ethane (single bond) --900 degrees C --> Ethylene (double bond)
---> Ethylene CH
A compound whose carbon skeleton can be divided into two or more units identical to the five-carbon skeleton of isoprene.
The most characteristic reaction of alkenes is addition to the carbon-carbon double bond.
The hydrogen halides HCl, HBr, and HI add to alkenes to give haloalkanes (alkyl halides).
Example: Addition of HCl to ethylene, gives chloroethane (ethyl choloride)
+ HCl --yields--> CH
+ HCl --yields--> CH
Addition of water
O --yields--> CH
A reaction in which one direction of bond forming or bond breaking occurs in preference to all other directions.
In the addition of HX to an alkene, hydrogen adds to the carbon of the double bond having the greater number of hydrogens.
Often paraphrased as "The rich get richer"
Propene + HCl --yields --> 2-Chloropropane not 1-Chloropropane
+ HCl --yields--> CH
A step-by-step description of how a chemical reaction occurs
A species containing a carbon atom with only three bonds to it and bearing a positive charge
In the presence of an acid catalyst, most commonly concentrated sulfuric acid, water adds to the carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene to give an alcohol.
Alkene + Water --yields--> Alcohol
An ion in which oxygen is bonded to three other atoms and bears a positive charge.
Any long-chain molecule synthesized by bonding together many single parts called monomers
The simplest nonredundant unit from which a polymer is synthesized
Example shown: Hydrogen Peroxide
Any compound that contains an -O-O- bond as, for example, H-O-O-H
Benzene or one of its derivatives
A compound containing one or more benzene-like rings
A group derived from an arene by removal of a H atom from an arene and given the symbol Ar-
The symbol used for an aryle group
A molecule best described as a composite of two or more Lewis structures
The two contributing structures for benzene are often called Kekule structures
- The aryl group derived by removing a hydrogen atom from benzene
Benzene ring with a hydroxyl (-OH) substituent
Benzene ring with an OCH
Benzene ring with an NH
Benzene ring with an aldehyde (-CHO) substituent
Benzene ring with a carboxylic acid (-COOH) substituent
Benzine ring with a methyl (-CH
Benzene ring with an ethene (CH
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAL)
A hydrocarbon containing two or more benzene rings, each of which shares two carbon atoms with another benzene ring
A characteristic reaction of aromatic compounds in which another atom or group of atoms is substituted for a hydrogen atom of the aromatic ring.
Typical reactions include halogenation, nitration, and sulfonation
A phenolic compound that is a natural antioxidant
Solutions in which ethanol is the solvent
A compound containing two -OH (hydroxyl) groups
A compound with hydroxyl (-OH) groups on adjacent carbons
Elimination of a molecule of water from an alcohol, where the Oh is removed from one carbon and an H is removed from an adjacent carbon.
Usually acid-catalyzed such as Ethanol in a solution of H
w/ heat yields Ethylene
A compound containing an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms
An ether in which the ether oxygen is one of the atoms of a ring
A compound that contains an -SH (sulfhydryl) group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
A common name for any molecule containing an -SH group
Stereoisomers that are nonsuperposable mirror images; refers to a relationship between pairs of objects
An object that is not superposable on its mirror image
An object that lacks chirality; an object that is superposable on its mirror image
A tetrahedral carbon atom that has four different groups bonded to it -- The most common cause of chirality
A mixture of equal amounts of two enantiomers
R, S System
A set of rules for specifying the configuration about a stereocenter
Stereoisomers that are not mirror images
A compound in which nitrogen is bonded only to alkyl groups or hydrogens
An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one or more aromatic rings
An amine in which nitrogen is one of the atoms of a ring
Heterocyclic aromatic amine
An amine in which nitrogen is one of the atoms of an aromatic ring
Characteristic Reactions of Amines
All amines, whether soluble or insoluble in water, react with strong acids to form water-soluble salts.
We can use this property to separate water-insoluble amines from water-insoluble nonbasic compounds
Carbon double bonded to oxygen (C=O)
A molecule containing a carbon bonded to one -OH group and one -OR group; the product of adding one molecule of alcohol to the carbonyl group of an aldehyde or ketone
A molecule containing two -OR groups bonded to the same carbon
A molecule containing an -OH group bonded to a carbon of a carbon-carbon double bond
Constitutional isomers that differ in the location of a hydrogen atom and a double bond
A functional group that contains a carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom (-CHO)
A functional group that contains a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms
Used to test for the presence of aldehydes
Long, unbranched-chain carboxylic acids, most commonly consisting of 12 to 20 carbons.
They are derived from the hydrolysis of animal fats, vegetable oils, and the phospholipids of biological membranes.
The hydrolysis of an ester in aqueous NaOH or KOH to an alcohol and the sodium or potassium salt of a carboxylic acid
A compound in which the -OH of a carboxyl group, RCOOH, is replaced by an alkoxy or aryloxy group
The process of forming an ester by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst, commonly sulfuric acid
Two carbonyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom
A carbonyl group bonded to a nitrogen atom
A carbonyl group bonded to an -OR group
A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis
A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler compound
A monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group
A monosaccharide containing a ketone group
A two-dimensional representation showing the configuration of a stereocenter;
horizontal lines represent bonds projecting forward from the stereocenter;
vertical lines represent bonds projecting toward the rear
A monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH group on its penultimate carbon to the right
A monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH group on its penultimate carbon to the left
A monosaccharide in which an -OH group is replaced by an -NH
A way to view furanose and pyranose forms of monosaccharides; the ring is drawn flat and viewed through its edge, with the anomeric carbon on the right and the oxygen atom to the rear
the hemiacetal carbon of the cyclic form of a monosaccharide
Monosaccharides that differ in configuration only at their anomeric carbons
A five-membered cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide
A six-membered cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide
The change in specific rotation that occurs when an alpha or beta form of a carbohydrate is converted to an equilibrium mixture of the two forms
A carbohydrate in which the -OH group on its anomeric carbon is replaced by an -OR group
The bond from the anomeric carbon of a glycoside to an -OR group
The product formed when the CHO group of a monosaccharid is reduced to a CH
A carbohydrate that reacts with a mild oxidizing agent under basic conditions to give an aldonic acid; the carbohydrate reduces the oxidizing agent
A carbohydrate containing two monosaccharide units joined by a glycosidic bond
A carbohydrate containing from six to ten monosaccharide units, each joined to the next by a glycosidic bond
A carbohydrate containing a large number of monosaccharid units, each joined to the next by one or more glycosidic bonds
A mixture of triglycerides containing a high proportion of long-chain, saturated fatty acids
A mixture of triglycerides containing a high proportion of long-chain, unsaturated fatty acids or short-chains, saturated fatty acids
Spherically shaped clusters containing both lipid molecules and protein molecules