Biochem_Intro

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119230
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Biochem_Intro
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2011-11-27 19:25:28
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organic chemistry
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(Reversible Q&A) Intro to organic Chemistry Terms
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  1. Organic chemistry
    The study of compounds containing carbon.
  2. Alcohol
    A compound containing an -OH (hydroxyl) group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
  3. Hydroxyl group
    An -OH group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
  4. Amine
    An organic compound in which one, two, or three hydrogens of ammonia are replaced by carbon groups; RNH2, R2NH, or R3N
  5. Amino Group
    A -NH2, RNH2, R2NH, or R3N group
  6. Carbonyl group
    A C=O group
  7. Aldehyde
    A compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to a hydrogen; a -CHO group
  8. Ketone
    A compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon groups
  9. Carboxyl group
    A -COOH group
  10. Carboxylic acid
    A compound containing a -COOH group
  11. Carboxylic ester
    A derivative of a carboxylic acid in which the H of the carboxyl group is replaced by a carbon group
  12. Alkane
    A saturated hydrocarbon whose carbon atoms are arranged in a chain
  13. Hydrocarbon
    A compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atons
  14. Saturated hydrocarbon
    A hydrocarbon that contains only carbon-carbon single bonds
  15. Aliphatic hydrocarbon
    • No an aromatic hydrocarbon
    • (Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes... Not benzene or arenes)
  16. Constitutional isomers
    (also known as structural isomers)
    Compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atoms
  17. Alkyl group
    A group derived by removing a hydrogen from an alkane; given the symbol R-
  18. R-
    A symbol used to represent an alkyl group
  19. Cycloalkane
    A saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbon atoms bonded to form a ring.
  20. Conformation
    Any three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule that results from rotation about a single bond.
  21. Equatorial position
    A position on a chair conformation of a cyclohexane ring that extends from the ring roughly perpendicular to the imaginary axis of the ring. (slanted/sideways)
  22. Axial position
    A position on a chair conformation of a cyclohexane ring that extends from the ring parallel to the imaginary axis of the ring. (straight up/down)
  23. Envelope conformation
    The most stable conformation of a cyclopentane
  24. Chair conformation
    The most stable conformation of a cyclohexane
  25. Cis-trans isomers
    (also known as Geometric isomers)
    Isomers that have the same connectivity of their atoms but a different arrangement of their atoms in space due to the presence of either a ring or a carbon-carbon double bond.
  26. Stereocenter
    A tetrahedral atom, most commonly carbon, at which exchange of two groups produces a stereoisomer.
  27. Configuration
    Refers to the arrangement of atoms about a stereocenter; that is, to the relative arrangement of parts of a molecule in space.
  28. Stereoisomers
    Isomers that have the same connectivity of their atoms but a different orientation of their atoms in space.
  29. Physical Properties of Alkenes
    • Nonpolar compounds: The only forces of attraction are London dispersion forces.
    • Insoluble in water: but soluble in each other and in other nonpolar organic solvents such as toluene.
    • Less Dense than Water: All liquid and solid
    • At room temperature, low molecular-weight alkanes are gases, higher-molecular-weight are liquids, and very-high-molecular-weight are waxy solids.
    • The least branched isomers generally has the highest boiling point
    • The most branched isomers generally has the lowest boiling point
  30. Oxidation of Alkanes to Carbon Dioxide and Water
    An exothermic reaction, is the basis for our use of them as sources of heat and power.

    CH3CH2CH3 + 5 O2 --yields--> 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + 530 kcal/mol (heat)
  31. Halogenation of Alkanes
    Reactions with cholorine or bromine results in the substitution of a halogen atom for a hydrogen.

    CH3CH3 + Cl2 --heat or light--> CH3CH2Cl + HCl
  32. Alkene
    An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon double bond
  33. Alkyne
    An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon triple bone
  34. Thermal Cracking
    A saturated hydrocarbon is converted to an unsaturated hydrocarbon plus H2.

    Example:

    Ethane (single bond) --900 degrees C --> Ethylene (double bond)

    CH3-CH3 ---> Ethylene CH2=CH2 + H2
  35. Terpene
    A compound whose carbon skeleton can be divided into two or more units identical to the five-carbon skeleton of isoprene.
  36. Hydrohalogenation
    The most characteristic reaction of alkenes is addition to the carbon-carbon double bond.

    The hydrogen halides HCl, HBr, and HI add to alkenes to give haloalkanes (alkyl halides).

    Example: Addition of HCl to ethylene, gives chloroethane (ethyl choloride)

    CH2=CH2 + HCl --yields--> CH3-CH2Cl
  37. Hydrochlorination
    CH2=CH2 + HCl --yields--> CH3-CH2Cl
  38. Hydration
    Addition of water

    CH2=CH2 + H2O --yields--> CH3-CH2OH
  39. Bromination
    CH2=CH2 + Br2 --yields--> CH2Br-CH2Br
  40. Hydrogenation (reduction)
    CH2=CH2 + H2 --yields--> CH3-CH3
  41. Regioselective reaction
    A reaction in which one direction of bond forming or bond breaking occurs in preference to all other directions.
  42. Markovnikov's rule
    In the addition of HX to an alkene, hydrogen adds to the carbon of the double bond having the greater number of hydrogens.

    Often paraphrased as "The rich get richer"

    Propene + HCl --yields --> 2-Chloropropane not 1-Chloropropane

    CH3CH=CH2 + HCl --yields--> CH3CHCl-CH3
  43. Reaction Mechanism
    A step-by-step description of how a chemical reaction occurs
  44. Carbocation
    A species containing a carbon atom with only three bonds to it and bearing a positive charge
  45. Acid-Catalyzed Hydration
    In the presence of an acid catalyst, most commonly concentrated sulfuric acid, water adds to the carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene to give an alcohol.

    Alkene + Water --yields--> Alcohol
  46. Oxonium ion
    An ion in which oxygen is bonded to three other atoms and bears a positive charge.
  47. Polymer
    Any long-chain molecule synthesized by bonding together many single parts called monomers
  48. Monomer
    The simplest nonredundant unit from which a polymer is synthesized
  49. Peroxide
    Example shown: Hydrogen Peroxide
    Any compound that contains an -O-O- bond as, for example, H-O-O-H
  50. Aromatic compound
    Benzene or one of its derivatives
  51. Arene
    A compound containing one or more benzene-like rings
  52. Aryl group
    A group derived from an arene by removal of a H atom from an arene and given the symbol Ar-
  53. Ar-
    The symbol used for an aryle group
  54. Resonance hybrid
    A molecule best described as a composite of two or more Lewis structures

    The two contributing structures for benzene are often called Kekule structures
  55. Phenyl group
    C6H8 - The aryl group derived by removing a hydrogen atom from benzene
  56. Phenol
    Benzene ring with a hydroxyl (-OH) substituent
  57. Anisole
    Benzene ring with an OCH3 substituent
  58. Aniline
    Benzene ring with an NH2 substituent
  59. Benzaldehyde
    Benzene ring with an aldehyde (-CHO) substituent
  60. Benzoic acid
    Benzene ring with a carboxylic acid (-COOH) substituent
  61. Toluene
    Benzine ring with a methyl (-CH3)substituent
  62. Styrene
    Benzene ring with an ethene (CH3=CH2) substituent
  63. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAL)
    A hydrocarbon containing two or more benzene rings, each of which shares two carbon atoms with another benzene ring
  64. Aromatic substitution
    A characteristic reaction of aromatic compounds in which another atom or group of atoms is substituted for a hydrogen atom of the aromatic ring.

    Typical reactions include halogenation, nitration, and sulfonation
  65. Vitamin E
    A phenolic compound that is a natural antioxidant
  66. Tinctures
    Solutions in which ethanol is the solvent
  67. Diol
    A compound containing two -OH (hydroxyl) groups
  68. Glycol
    A compound with hydroxyl (-OH) groups on adjacent carbons
  69. Dehydration
    Elimination of a molecule of water from an alcohol, where the Oh is removed from one carbon and an H is removed from an adjacent carbon.

    Usually acid-catalyzed such as Ethanol in a solution of H2SO4 w/ heat yields Ethylene

    CH2CH2OH --H2SO4--> CH2=CH2 + H2O
  70. Ether
    A compound containing an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms

    CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3 Diethyl ether
  71. Cyclic ether
    An ether in which the ether oxygen is one of the atoms of a ring
  72. Thiol
    A compound that contains an -SH (sulfhydryl) group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
  73. Mercaptan
    A common name for any molecule containing an -SH group
  74. Enantiomers
    Stereoisomers that are nonsuperposable mirror images; refers to a relationship between pairs of objects
  75. Chiral
    An object that is not superposable on its mirror image
  76. Achiral
    An object that lacks chirality; an object that is superposable on its mirror image
  77. Stereocenter
    A tetrahedral carbon atom that has four different groups bonded to it -- The most common cause of chirality
  78. Racemic mixture
    A mixture of equal amounts of two enantiomers
  79. R, S System
    A set of rules for specifying the configuration about a stereocenter
  80. Diastereomers
    Stereoisomers that are not mirror images
  81. Aliphatic Amine
    A compound in which nitrogen is bonded only to alkyl groups or hydrogens
  82. Aromatic amine
    An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one or more aromatic rings
  83. Heterocyclic amine
    An amine in which nitrogen is one of the atoms of a ring
  84. Heterocyclic aromatic amine
    An amine in which nitrogen is one of the atoms of an aromatic ring
  85. Characteristic Reactions of Amines
    • All amines, whether soluble or insoluble in water, react with strong acids to form water-soluble salts.
    • We can use this property to separate water-insoluble amines from water-insoluble nonbasic compounds
  86. Carbonyl group
    Carbon double bonded to oxygen (C=O)
  87. Hemiacetal
    A molecule containing a carbon bonded to one -OH group and one -OR group; the product of adding one molecule of alcohol to the carbonyl group of an aldehyde or ketone
  88. Acetal
    A molecule containing two -OR groups bonded to the same carbon
  89. Enol
    A molecule containing an -OH group bonded to a carbon of a carbon-carbon double bond
  90. Tautomers
    Constitutional isomers that differ in the location of a hydrogen atom and a double bond
  91. Aldehyde
    A functional group that contains a carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom (-CHO)
  92. Ketone
    A functional group that contains a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms
  93. Tollen's Reagent
    Used to test for the presence of aldehydes
  94. Fatty Acids
    Long, unbranched-chain carboxylic acids, most commonly consisting of 12 to 20 carbons.

    They are derived from the hydrolysis of animal fats, vegetable oils, and the phospholipids of biological membranes.
  95. Saponification
    The hydrolysis of an ester in aqueous NaOH or KOH to an alcohol and the sodium or potassium salt of a carboxylic acid
  96. Ester
    A compound in which the -OH of a carboxyl group, RCOOH, is replaced by an alkoxy or aryloxy group
  97. Fischer esterification
    The process of forming an ester by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst, commonly sulfuric acid
  98. Anydride
    Two carbonyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom
  99. Amide
    A carbonyl group bonded to a nitrogen atom
  100. Ester
    A carbonyl group bonded to an -OR group
  101. Lactams
    Cyclic amides
  102. Lactones
    Cyclic esters
  103. Carbohydrate
    A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis
  104. Monosaccharide
    A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler compound
  105. Aldose
    A monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group
  106. Ketose
    A monosaccharide containing a ketone group
  107. Fischer projection
    A two-dimensional representation showing the configuration of a stereocenter;

    • horizontal lines represent bonds projecting forward from the stereocenter;
    • vertical lines represent bonds projecting toward the rear
  108. D-Monosaccharide
    A monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH group on its penultimate carbon to the right
  109. L-Monosaccharide
    A monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH group on its penultimate carbon to the left
  110. Amino Sugar
    A monosaccharide in which an -OH group is replaced by an -NH2 group
  111. Haworth projection
    A way to view furanose and pyranose forms of monosaccharides; the ring is drawn flat and viewed through its edge, with the anomeric carbon on the right and the oxygen atom to the rear
  112. Anomeric carbon
    the hemiacetal carbon of the cyclic form of a monosaccharide
  113. Anomers
    Monosaccharides that differ in configuration only at their anomeric carbons
  114. Furanose
    A five-membered cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide
  115. Pyranose
    A six-membered cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide
  116. Mutarotation
    The change in specific rotation that occurs when an alpha or beta form of a carbohydrate is converted to an equilibrium mixture of the two forms
  117. Glycoside
    A carbohydrate in which the -OH group on its anomeric carbon is replaced by an -OR group
  118. Glycosidic bond
    The bond from the anomeric carbon of a glycoside to an -OR group
  119. Alditol
    The product formed when the CHO group of a monosaccharid is reduced to a CH2OH group
  120. Reducing sugar
    A carbohydrate that reacts with a mild oxidizing agent under basic conditions to give an aldonic acid; the carbohydrate reduces the oxidizing agent
  121. Disaccharide
    A carbohydrate containing two monosaccharide units joined by a glycosidic bond
  122. Oligosaccharide
    A carbohydrate containing from six to ten monosaccharide units, each joined to the next by a glycosidic bond
  123. Polysaccharide
    A carbohydrate containing a large number of monosaccharid units, each joined to the next by one or more glycosidic bonds
  124. Fat
    A mixture of triglycerides containing a high proportion of long-chain, saturated fatty acids
  125. Oil
    A mixture of triglycerides containing a high proportion of long-chain, unsaturated fatty acids or short-chains, saturated fatty acids
  126. Lipoproteins
    Spherically shaped clusters containing both lipid molecules and protein molecules

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