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2011-11-27 20:17:51

antifungals, antivirals
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  1. antimycotic drug classifications
    • polyenes
    • imidazoles
    • antimetabolic antifungal
    • antiprotozaol agents
  2. amphotericin B--spec consideration
    • polyenes--antimycotic
    • considered highly toxic!
    • SE (PROFOUND) flush, fever, chills, nv, hypotension, throbophlebitis, nephrotoxicity and electrolyte imbalace (K and Mg)
    • Mrt bun, creat, and urine output
    • give only in D5W, hydrate with IVF for 2 hrs before and after to dec risk of nephrotoxicity
    • Do NOT give if severe bone marrow suppresstion
  3. nystatin--special condsideration
    • polyenes--antimycotic
    • used topically or orally for candidal infections
    • avoid vag delivery if prego
    • NO AE known, low SE profile
  4. fluconazole (Diflucan)
  5. detocanazole (Nizoral)
  6. miconazole (Monistat)
  7. itraconazole(Sporanox)
  8. flucytosine (Ancobon)
    antimetabolic antifungal
  9. atovaquone (Mepron)
    antiprotzoal agent
  10. Candidins
    • inhibit formation of fungal cell wall
    • for serious infections
    • IV
  11. caspofungin (Cancidas)
  12. micafungin (Mycamine)
  13. anidulafungin (Eraxis)
  14. Imidazoles (Azole) group
    • tx of candidiasis and tinea infections along with systemic
    • if Po mtr liver enzymes and creat clr
    • apply lotion 2-3 in beyond the rash
    • steriods can decrease effectivness
  15. Antivirals
    • kills the cell
    • only effdctive during acute infection phase
  16. systemic nonclassifieds SE
    CNS (insomnia, anxiety, confusion, weakness) GI (anorexia, NVD) kidney damage
  17. amantadine (Symmetrel)
    systemic nonclassified antiviral
  18. rimantadine HCL (Flumadine)
    • systemic nonclassified antiviral
    • used for influenza A
  19. cidofovir (Vistide)
    • systemic nonclassified antiviral
    • used for CMV retinitis
    • mtr renal fnx
  20. foscarnet (foscavir)
    • systemic nonclassified antiviral
    • used for HSV 1&2
    • mtr renal fnx
  21. bidarabine monohydrate (Vira-A)
    • systemic nonclassified antiviral
    • used for HSV 1 (viral encephalitis)
    • herpes zoster, and varicella zoster
  22. Purine Nucleosides
    • interferes with the steps of viral DNA synthesis
    • used to tx HSV 1 and 2, herpes zoster, varicella zoster and CMV
  23. Acyclovir (Zovirax)
    Purine nucleosides antiviral
  24. famciclovir (Famvir)
    purine nucleosides antiviral
  25. valacyclovir HCL (Valtrex0
    purine nucleosides antiviral
  26. ribavirin (virazole)--type and used for
    • purine nucleosides antiviral
    • RSV, influenza A and herpes
  27. Neuraminidase inhibitors
    • decrease the release of the virus from infected cells to decrease the viral spread and shorten the flu symptom duration
    • Need to be taken within 48 hrs of symptoms
    • Effective in influenza A and B
  28. oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu)
    • neuraminidase inhibitors
    • reduce if renal insufficiency
  29. zanamivir (relenza)
    neuraminidase inhibitors antiviral
  30. topical antivirals
    • not systemicaly absorbed
    • opthalmic agents, genital and perianal warts, herpes 1
  31. idoxuridine (Herplex)
    opthalamic antiviral
  32. trifluridine (Viroptic)
    opthalmic antiviral
  33. vidarabine (Vira A)
    opthalmic antiviral
  34. imiquimod (Aldara)
    topical antiviral for genital and perianal warts
  35. peniclovir (Denavir)
    topical antiviral for herpes simplex 1