vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-4-tissues

Card Set Information

Author:
darlene.m.nelson
ID:
119241
Filename:
vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-4-tissues
Updated:
2011-11-27 18:19:50
Tags:
vet tech anatomy physiology chapter tissues set
Folders:

Description:
vet tech anatomy physiology 1 chapter 4 tissues set
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user darlene.m.nelson on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Tissues
    • cells of a similar type and function clustered into layers or sheets
    • cells are like individuals - can complete individual job, but need to work together in tissues
    • result of differentiation and specialization
    • must cooperate with other cells for an organism to function
  2. Epithelial tissue
    • divides readily in adults
    • eg mucus mebranes, cornea, skin
    • develops into carcinomas (cancer)
    • composed of sheets or layers
  3. Epithelial tissue functions
    • protects, lines and covers
    • filters - kidneys
    • absorbs
    • senses
    • secretes
    • excretes
  4. Glandular epithelium
    • responsible for excretion and secretion
    • two types:
    • - cellular - goblet cells - eg pseudostratified ciliated epithelium - individual drops of mucus
    • - organ - pancreas
  5. Excretions
    • leave the body
    • "ex" like exit
  6. Secretions
    • stay within the body
    • "sec" like secret
  7. Epithelial tissue characteristics
    • cells are tightly packed (shoulder to shoulder) to form sheets or layers
    • polar - recognizable top and bottom
    • adhere via junctional complexes
    • avascular - no blood vessels - eg paper cuts that don't bleed
    • innervated - lots of nerve endings
  8. Cellular attachments in epithelial cells
    • three types:
    • - tight junction
    • - gap junction
    • - desmosome
    • space between cells contains a matrix that allows for nutrients to reach cell
    • in any given type of epithelial tissues there can be more than one junction type (or all 3)
    • - cardiac - desmosomes and gap junction
    • determined genetically
    • as you get older, ability to make junctions decreases, so old skin tears easily
  9. Tight junctions
    • occlusive
    • no leakage
    • seen in:
    • - bladder
    • - GI tract
  10. Desmosomes
    • needs 2 cells to link
    • plaque or thickening
    • extremely strong - like a weld
    • mechanical - interlocking filaments
    • filaments extend into the cell
    • skin, heart, uterus - don't want cells to separate
    • hemidesmosomes - basement membrane
    • epithelial cell sends fibers into connective tissue & connects to fibers in there
    • only one cytoplasmic plaque that acts like a washer
  11. Gap junction
    • transmembrane tubular proteins connect cytoplasm of one cell with the cytoplasm of the next cell
    • proteins are called connexons
    • intestinal, cardiac and smooth muscle
    • virus and intraplasmic bacteria love these
  12. Basement membrane
    • non-living mesh of fibers that cements the epithelial cell to the underlying connective tissue (the collagen in it)
    • hemidesmosomes
    • manufactured by the epithelial cells
    • nutrients and waste diffuse across the basement membrane out of/in to connective tissue where blood vessels takes away/brings
  13. Apical surface
    • apical - from apex
    • free border
    • opens to space - lumen
    • specialization
    • - microvilli
    • - cilia
  14. Microvilli
    • fingerlike projections increase the surface area
    • brush border
  15. Cilia
    • hairlike
    • enables movement of material along cell surfaces
  16. Classification of epithelial tissue
    • number of cell layers:
    • - one layer - simple
    • - greater than one layer:
    • -- stratified
    • -- psuedostratified
    • shape of cells:
    • - squamous - flat
    • - cuboidal - square
    • - columnar - rectangular
  17. Simple squamous epithelium
    • thin and delicate - so gases move right through
    • line surfaces that exchange gas or liquid by diffusion/osmosis
    • line thorax and abdomen
    • - mesothelium
    • -- mesothelioma - tumors of mesothelium
    • line blood vessels
    • - endothelium
  18. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • single layer of cuboidal cells
    • secretory glands
    • - endocrine
    • -- thyroid
    • - exocrine
    • -- salivary
    • -- pancreas
  19. Apical surface
    surface toward lumen
  20. Basal surface
    surface toward connective tissue
  21. Simple columnar epithelium
    • elongated, closely packed cells
    • nuclei located at base of cell
    • associated with GI tract
    • - absorptive cells
    • - goblet cells are present
    • excretory ducts - sometimes columnar in duct; cuboidal in secretory portion
    • respiratory tract
    • - ciliated
    • e.g. hair - keratin produced in epithelial cells in scalp
  22. Stratified squamous epithelium
    • multiple layers of flat cells
    • in areas of mechanical and/or chemical stress
    • - mouth
    • - vagina
    • - rectum
    • keratinized (on exterior) or not (on interior surface)
    • cuboidal to squamous - basement is cuboidal, flatten as they move up
  23. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • "boutique tissue"
    • 2 layers of cells (both cuboidal)
    • lines large ducts of exocrine glands
    • only 3 places in the body:
    • - mammary - milk
    • - sweat
    • - salivary
  24. Pseudo stratified columnar epithelium
    • pseudo - false
    • cells in a single layer
    • - all are attached to basement membrane
    • nuclei are staggered through compression
    • - like a crowd that contains adults and children
    • not all cells apical surfaces reach lumen
    • ciliated
    • in respiratory tree
  25. Transitional epithelium
    • stretchy
    • cells are rounded and dome like when relaxed, flattened and squamous when distended
    • in bladder and other urinary structures
  26. Gland
    a single cell or group of cells that have the ability to manufacture and discharge a secretion
  27. Secretion
    specialized protein molecules produced by the RER (rough ER) and packaged by the Golgi apparatus
  28. Glandular epithelium
    • secretions are stored as granules within the cell
    • eg histamine granules you can see in eosinophils with a microscope
    • eg eosinophils secrete granules that let the rest of immune system know its under attack & needs to start working
    • develop as invaginations of epithelium in the embryo
    • the invaginations form ducts and tubules
    • as the embryo develops, some of the ducts are lost and the gland becomes embedded in the deeper tissue
  29. Classification of glands
    • presence or absence of ducts
    • number of cells composing gland
    • shape of the secreting ducts
    • complexity of the glandular structure
    • type of secretion
    • manner of secretion
  30. Endocrine glands
    • endo - inside
    • lack ducts
    • produce hormones
    • secrete directly into the blood
    • part of a complex system
    • the slow and steady part of the nervous system (but not really)
  31. Pineal gland
    • makes melatonin
    • helps adjust to seasons
    • communicates with pituitary
  32. Pituitary gland
    inhibits/stimulates rest of endocrine system
  33. Thyroid gland
    tells you to start laying down fat in winter
  34. Exocrine glands
    • possesses ducts
    • - classified by duct arrangement
    • discharge secretions locally
    • sweat, saliva, mucus, anal gland secretions are produced by exocrine glands
    • pancreatic duct goes to small intestines to help digest food
  35. Adenoma
    benign tumor of gland
  36. Duct arrangements
    • simple, branched or compound
    • tubular, coiled tubular or alveolar (grapelike)
  37. Types of exocrine glands
    • unicellular
    • multicellular
  38. Unicellular exocrine glands
    • goblet cells
    • modified columnar epithelial cell
    • secrete
    • - mucin - proteoglycans & glycoprotein that becomes mucus when contacts water
  39. Proteoglycans
    molecule that contains protein & sugar - more sugar than protein
  40. Glycoprotein
    molecule that contains protein & sugar - more protein than sugar
  41. Multicellular exocrine glands
    • composed of 2 components:
    • - secretory unit
    • - duct
  42. Secretory unit
    • eg hot water heater makes hot water
    • may be surrounded by myoepithelial cells to assist discharge of secretions
  43. Myoepithelial cells
    make actin & myosin fibers to allow contraction of glands
  44. Duct
    • eg pipes that carry hot water
    • unbranched - simple
    • branched - compound
  45. Classification of secretory portion of exocrine glands
    • tubular - channel of even width
    • acinar (alveolar) - rounded sac
    • tubulaveolar (acinar) - qualities of both tubular and acinar
  46. Methods of exocrine secretion
    • merocrine
    • apocrine
    • holocrine
  47. Merocrine
    • secretion is released - secretory vesicle meshes with cell membrane
    • cell remains intact
    • sweat and saliva
    • - percieve as H2O
    • - no lipids, just protein
  48. Apocrine
    • apex of cell is lost during secretion - pinched off portion of cell contains secretion
    • mammary and sweat (really sticky sweat)
    • plasmalemma = fat in milk
  49. Holocrine
    • entire cell is destroyed upon release of secretion
    • sebaceous glands
    • - produce sebum (oil on skin), eg lanolin
    • - sebaceous adenomas filled with cottage cheese like substance
    • - eg ear wax
  50. Types of exocrine secretion
    • serous
    • mucus
    • mixed
  51. Serous exocrine secretion
    • watery
    • enzyme rich
    • generally merocrine solutions
  52. Mucus exocrine secretions
    • thick
    • composed of glycoproteins
  53. Mixed exocrine secretions
    • eg tears
    • contain both a mucus and serous component
  54. Connective tissue
    • supports other tissues
    • divides readily in adults
    • develops into sarcomas
    • - vaccine related sarcoma come from fibroblasts
    • most abdundant tissue by weight
    • most is derived from the mesoderm
    • mainly composed of nonliving, extracellular matrix
    • think of it as glue that holds the body together
    • highly vascular
    • doesn't mend itself like new if severed (like severed thread or rope)
    • - never as strong as before
    • - make mesh patch (synthetic) - sew on both sides of break - still not as strong
  55. Components of Connective tissue
    • extracellular fibers
    • ground substance
    • - ground as in background
    • - different kinds
    • - outside cells
    • cells
    • - fibroblast - young; makes fibers
    • - mast cell macrophages - all connective tissue
    • fibers and ground substance create matrix
  56. Connective tissue morphology
    • connective tissues vary in proportion of cells, fibers, matrix giving rise to a wide variety of morphologies
    • - blood - ground subs=plasma, fiber=dissolved fibrin, cells= RBC & WBC
    • - tendon - mostly collagen, not many cells, not much matrix
    • - fat - adipose cells, fibers in between; cellulite is fibrous
    • - bone (calcified) - cellular, calcified matrix
  57. Connective tissue functions
    • provide metabolic and structural connections
    • - tendon holds muscle to bone
    • protection
    • - bones protect soft organs
    • - fat - soft tissue
    • energy reserve - fat
    • transport medium
    • - blood - transport for all substances in body
  58. Ground substance
    • amorphous - blob-like
    • homogenous
    • - uniform throughout
    • - liquid, semi-solid (gel) or calcified
    • - glycoaminoglycans (GAGS)
    • -- hyalauronic acid
    • -- helps orient fibers correctly
    • -- protien has nitrogen
  59. Fibers
    • collagenous
    • retivcular
    • elastic
  60. Collagenous fibers
    • most common
    • strong and thick
    • fibrils and microfibrils
    • "white fibers"
    • density and orientation determines function
    • building block of all fibrous tissues
    • think of collagen as a piece of monofilament (fibril)
    • - put together, makes fiber
    • - put more together, yarn
    • - put more together, rope
    • - within body, can find all sizes
    • anabolic steroids damage collagen
  61. Reticular fibers
    • thin, delicate arrangements of collagen molecules
    • under epithelium
    • support highly cellular organs
    • - hold up nephrons in kidney
    • - blood vessels follow reticular fibers
  62. Elastic fibers
    • elastin
    • - diff protein than collagen
    • - like diff between thread and rubber band
    • lack tensile strength
    • - if you pull hard enough, it breaks
    • eg earlobes
    • eg horses - ligamentum nuchae
    • - from skull to base of spine
    • - holds head up
    • - must use muscle to put head down
    • eg arteries around the heart has these to allow blood flow
    • - hardening of the arteries is loss of elasticity
  63. Connective tissue cells
    • fixed
    • transient (wandering)
  64. Fixed cells
    • fibroblast
    • fat (adipocytes)
    • reticular
  65. Fibroblast (fixed cells)
    • secrete fibers and ground substance
    • named by the tissue they are found in:
    • - chondro - make cartilage
    • - osteo - make bone
    • blasts - actively producing
    • cytes - mature cells that have stopped producing
  66. Reticular Cells (fixed cells)
    • star shaped
    • reticular fibers
    • immune function
  67. Transient (wandering) cells
    • move in and out of connective tissue
    • leukocytes - neutrophils
    • - diapedesis
    • -- literally - walking across
    • -- move out of connective tissue along reticular fibers using myosin & actin
    • mast cells
    • - histamines & heparin
    • - inflammatory response
    • macrophages
    • - massive
    • - fixed or transient
    • - named based on tissue location (leftover from when we didn't know as much):
    • -- Kupffer - liver
    • -- microglial - brain
    • -- histiocyte
  68. Categories of Connective Tissue
    • connective tissue proper
    • specialized connective tissue
  69. Connective tissue proper
    • categorized by how many fibers & their pattern
    • dense connective tissue - numerous fibers
    • loose connective tissue - fewer fibers
  70. Dense connective tissue
    • dense regular - collagen
    • dense irregular - collagen
    • elastic - elastin
  71. Dense regular connective tissue
    • collagen fibers are tightly packed and aligned in a parallel pattern
    • relatively avascular
    • little ground substance, so no slime factor
    • tendons
    • ligaments
    • fascia
  72. Dense irregular connective tissue
    • collagen fibers are interwoven in thick bundles
    • dermis
    • organ capsules
  73. Elastic connective tissue
    • primary fibers are elastin, not collagen
    • disks
    • arteries
    • bladder
    • ligamentum nuchae
  74. Loose connective tissue
    • areolar
    • adipose
    • reticular
  75. Areolar (loose connective tissue)
    • most common
    • covers everything
    • small open spaces
    • cells - fibroblasts
    • ground substance - hyaluronic acid (when peel skin off chicken, this is slimy, gel-like goo)
    • fibers - all 3 types: reticular, collagen, elastin
  76. Adipose tissue (loose connective tissue)
    • Fat
    • little ground substance, few fibers
    • adipocytes - cells
    • - brown adipose tissue
    • - white adipose tissue
  77. Brown adipose tissue
    • cell respiration - heat, not ATP
    • hibernation and neonates - cannot thermoregulate
  78. Hibernation
    • torporous state
    • when cold, shiver, brown fat produces heat, so don't need to wake up to exercise to get warm
  79. White adipose tissue
    • highly vascular
    • energy store
    • protection
    • insulation - keeps you warm
  80. Reticular Connective tissue (loose connective tissue)
    • thin reticular fibers
    • fibroblasts
    • stroma
    • - structure formed by connective tissue that other cells adhere to
  81. Specialized connective tissue
    • cartilage
    • blood
    • bone
  82. Cartilage
    • aka gristle
    • more rigid than connective tissue proper
    • avascular - perichondrium
    • aneuronal - no nerve endings
    • ends of long bone, nose, ear, vocal cords
    • cells - chondroblasts (/cytes)
    • - lacunae
    • matrix:
    • - hyaluronic acid
    • - chondroitin sulfate
    • - chondronectin
    • fibers - collagen
  83. Types of cartilage
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  84. Hyaline cartilage
    • most common
    • glass like - can't identify fibers in matrix
    • covers ends of bones
    • if damaged, is replaced by fibrocartialage
    • supports trachea
    • perichondrium
    • - provides nutritional support
    • - vascular
  85. Fibrocartilage
    • fibers are coarser than hyaline cartilage
    • junction of hyaline cartilage and dense regular connective tissue
    • no perichondrium
    • - menisci - in knee
    • - disks - between vertebrae
  86. Elastic cartilage
    • many elastic fibers
    • epiglottis
  87. Bone
    • highly vascular
    • osseous connective tissue
    • organic - collagen
    • inorganic - calcium salts
    • osteocytes - mature
    • osteoclasts
    • - bone eaters
    • - when you need calcium and don't get enough in diet
    • periosteum
  88. Blood
    • cells
    • - erythrocytes
    • - leukocytes
    • - platelets (pieces of thrombocytes)
    • matrix
    • - plasma - protein rich - particularly albumin
    • fibers
    • - fibrinogen - fibrin - transform under appropriate circumstances
    • aspirin stops platelets from getting sticky
    • - when platelets slow down they get sticky
    • - blocked arteries can slow them down enough to make them sticky
    • FIP - fluid pulled out full of fibrin
    • hemorrhage - put pressure on for 5 minutes to allow form to clot
  89. Membranes
    • intermediate step between tissues and organs
    • connective tissue & epithelium working together
    • - line body cavities - pleura & peritoneum
    • - separate organs
    • - cover surfaces
    • -- frequently bathed in fluid
    • --- urine - bladder
    • --- mucus - lining of respiratory tree
  90. Types of membranes
    • named for what they produce
    • mucous
    • serous - watery, eg pleural
    • cutaneous - produce sebum, eg skin
    • synovial - lines joints that move
  91. Mucous membranes
    • mucosae
    • line organs that connect to the outside
    • - bladder, intestines, respiratory tree, reproductive tract
    • epithelial layer - stratified squamous or simple columnar (may be pseudo stratified)
    • connective tissue - lamina propria - literally proper layer
    • produce mucus
    • animals can get sinus headaches, esp cats - when scruff can compress sinuses & hurt
  92. Serous membranes
    • serosae
    • cover organs and body cavities that don't open to exterior
    • - parietal - attached to body wall
    • - visceral - attached to organ
    • simple squamous epithelium
    • attached by loose areolar connective tissue
    • produce transudate - thin & watery
    • named for locaton:
    • - pleural fluid
    • - peritoneal fluid
    • disease creates changes in membrane and fluid
    • exudate
    • - cells & protein added to transudate
    • - check protein with refractometer
    • effusion
    • - ascites
    • - leakage from membrane
    • abdomino/thoracocentesis
    • - ques is it transudate (tend to be acellular) or exudate
  93. Mesenteries
    • special serous membrane
    • thin material (web like) between blood vessels
    • - keeps them fanned out
    • - can twist & intestine will die
    • stomach mesentery called omentum
    • mesentery is continuous with peritoneum
    • peritoneal space has organs covered with visceral peritoneum
    • blood vessels originate from aorta along spine
    • cranial & caudal mesenteric arteries branch to different pieces of intestine
  94. Cutaneous membrane
    • integument - skin
    • keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis - on top of dermis)
    • dermis - connective tissue that supports epidermis
  95. Synovial membranes
    • lines the cavities of freely moveable joints
    • no epithelium - this makes it unique
    • only has connective tissue
    • loose connective tissue covered bu adipose tissue and a layer of collagen and fibroblasts
    • swollen joint has too much synovial fluid
    • - highly proteinaceous, no cells normally
  96. Muscle tissue
    • prefix = myo
    • composed of cells called fibers (gross description, not same as fibrous connective tissue)
    • cells contain filaments (little threads) composed of actin & myosin
    • 3 types:
    • - skeletal
    • - smooth
    • - cardiac
  97. Skeletal muscle
    • long, large, multinucleate cells
    • voluntary - controlled through concious thought
    • striated
    • associated with nerves
    • - paresis - weakening of muscle
    • - paralysis - loss of function
    • shortens when it contracts
    • every muscle fiber has an axon terminal to allow range of motion from small to large
    • - touching someone vs punching them
  98. Paresis
    • weakening of muscle
    • hard to assess in animals
    • - sled dogs that can't pull as much as they used to
    • - draft horses can't do as much work as they used to
  99. Smooth muscle
    • small, spindle shaped cells
    • no striations
    • walls of hollow organs and blood vessels
    • nonstraiated, involuntary muscle
    • still have actin & myosin
    • scrunches when contracts
  100. Cardiac muscle
    • found only in the heart
    • myocardium
    • involuntarty, striated
    • branched
    • intercalated disks (junctures)
    • think of it as joint in water pipe - bolted together, but hollow so water can flow
    • cells all communicate so heart beats together
  101. Neural tissue
    • neurons & neuroglial cells
    • transmit & recieve electrical impulses
  102. Neurons
    • perikaryon (cell body)
    • dendrites
    • axons
  103. Neuroglial cells
    • connective tissue
    • most numerous cells in the neural tissue
    • highly specialized
    • - astrocytes - blood-brain barrier
    • - oligodendrocytes - myelin sheath
    • - microglia - phagocytosis - basically macrophages
    • - ependymal - CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
    • small cells around large motor neurons

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview