First Aid: most common associations

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First Aid: most common associations
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2012-02-15 02:42:51
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USMLE First Aid Step 1 most common associations
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  1. What is the most common cause of bacteremia?
    Staph. aureus

    (from IDU)
  2. What is the most common cause of typical pneumonia
    Strep. pneumococcus/pneumoniae

    (2nd: Hemophilus influenza)
  3. What is the most common cause of bacteria-associated cancer?
    H. pylori

    (gastric carcinoma)
  4. What is the most common bacteria found in the GI tract?
    1st: Bacteroides

    2nd: E. coli
  5. What is the most common brain tumor in adults?
    metastasis

    • 2nd: astrocytoma (incl. glioblastoma multiforme)
    • 3rd: meningioma
    • 4th: schwannoma
  6. What is the most common brain tumor in children?
    medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
  7. What is the most common supratentorial brain tumor in children?
    craniopharyngioma
  8. What is the most common invasive breast cancer?
    infiltrating ductal carcinoma

    (in USA: 1/9 women develop breast cancer)
  9. What is the most common breast mass?
    premenopausal women: fibrocystic change

    post-menopausal women: carcinoma
  10. What is the most common breast tumor?
    (benign) fibroadenoma
  11. What is the most common microbe found in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia patients?
    Klebsiella

    • (also:
    • Staph. aureus
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • E. coli)
  12. What is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia?
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    • (also:
    • Chlamydia pneumoniae
    • Legionella pneumophila)
  13. What is the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults?
    myxoma

    (4:1 left vs right atrium)
  14. What is the most common primary cardiac tumor in children?
    rhabdomyoma
  15. What is the most common cardiac tumor in adults?
    metastasis
  16. What is the most common cardiomyopathy?
    dilated cardiomyopathy
  17. What is the most common chromosomal disorder?
    Down Syndrome (trisom 21, 18, etc.)

    (associated with: ALL, Alzheimer's, endocardial cusion defects, palmar crease)
  18. What is the most common chronic arrhythmia?
    atrial fibrillation

    (high risk of emboli)
  19. What is the most common congenital heart defect?
    VSD
  20. What is the most common cause of constrictive pericarditis?
    tuberculosis
  21. What is the most common coronary artery involved in thrombosis?
    Left Anterior Descending

    • (2nd: Right Coronary Artery
    • 3rd: Left Coronary Artery)
  22. What is the most common cause of "early" cyanosis?
    (less common vs "late" cyanosis)

    • 3 T's:
    • tetralogy of Fallot
    • TGA
    • truncus arteriosis
  23. What is the most common cause of "late" cyanosis?
    • VSD
    • ASD
    • PDA
  24. What is the most common demyelinating disease?
    multiple sclerosis
  25. What is the most common dietary defecit?
    iron
  26. What is the most common cause of epiglottitis?
    Hemophilus influenzae Type B
  27. What is the most common esophageal cancer?
    SCC
  28. What is the most common gene involved in cancer?
    p53

    (tumor-suppressor gene)
  29. What is the most common group affected by cystic fibrosis?
    Caucasians
  30. What are the most common presenting symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
    • mucous plugs
    • chronic respiratory infections
    • nasal polyps
    • fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies
  31. What is the most common gynecologic malignancy?
    endometrial carcinoma
  32. What is the most common cause of a heart murmur?
    normal variation/functional murmur

    (2nd: mitral valve prolapse, mid-systolic click)
  33. What is the most common cause of mitral insufficiency in the USA?
    mitral valve prolapse
  34. What is the most common cause of mitral stenosis in USA?
    chronic rheumatic heart disease

    (valves: M > M+A > A > T > P)
  35. What is the most common heart valve involved with bacterial endocarditis?
    mitral valve
  36. What is the most common valve involved with IDU-related bacterial endocarditis?
    tricuspid valve
  37. What is the most common presenting vitamin deficiency in the US?
    folic acid (pregnant women)
  38. What is the common clinical presentation of Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis?)
    • abdominal pain
    • ascites
    • hepatosplenomegaly
  39. What is the common association with achilles tendon xanthoma?
    • Familial hypercholesterolemia
    • decreased LDL receptor signalling
  40. What is the common clinical presentation of Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)?
    • adrenal hemorrhage
    • hypotension
    • DIC
  41. What is the common association with arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, and hyperfelxible joints?
    • Marfan's syndrome
    • fibrillin gene mutation
  42. What is the common association with an athlete with polycythemia?
    Erythropoietin injection
  43. What is the common clinical presentation of Pott's disease (vertebral tuberculosis)?
    • back pain
    • fever
    • night sweats
    • weight loss
  44. What is the common association with bilateral hilar adenopathy and uveitis?
    • sarcoidosis
    • noncaseating granulomas
  45. What is the common association with blue sclera?
    • ostogenesis imperfecta
    • collagen defect
  46. What is the common association with a bluish line on the gingiva?
    • lead poisoning
    • "Burton's line"
  47. What is the common association with bone pain, bone enlargement, and arthritis?
    • Paget's disease of bone
    • increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity
    • i.e. increased bone turnover
  48. What is the common clinical presentation of aortic regurgitation?
    • bounding pulses
    • diastolic heart murmur
    • head bobbinhg
  49. What is the common association with "butterfly" facial rash and Raynaud's phenomenon in a young female?
    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  50. What is the common association with Cafe au lait spots and Lisch nodules (i.e. iris hamartoma)?
    • Neurofibromitosis I: pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
    • Neurofibromitosis II: bilateral acoustic neuromas
  51. What is the common association with Cafe au lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and precocious puberty?
    • McCune-Albright Syndrome
    • mosaic G-protein signaling mutation
  52. What is the common association with calf pseudohypertrophy?
    • muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne's)
    • X-linked recessive deletion of dystrophin gene
  53. What is the common association with a "cherry red" spot on the macula?
    • Tay-Sachs disease: ganglioside accumulation
    • Niemann-Pick: sphingomyelin accumulation
    • central retinal artery occlusion
  54. What is the common association with chest pain on exertion?
    • angina
    • stable: moderate exertion
    • unstable: minimal exertion, at rest
  55. What is the common association with chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, and persistent fever following an MI?
    • Dressler's syndrome
    • autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis
    • presents 1-12 weeks after acute episode
  56. What is the common association with a child using their arms to stand up from a squat?
    • Gowers' sign
    • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  57. What is the common association with a child who presents with a fevver who develops a red rash on their face that spreads to their body?
    • "slapped cheeks"
    • erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
    • parvovirus B19 (ssDNA, non-encapsulated)
  58. What is the pathology and presentation of Huntington's disease?
    • CAG triplet repeat expansion; autosomal dominant
    • paternal anticipation
    • chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
  59. What is the common association with chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, and myoglobinuria?
    • McArdle's disease
    • muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency
  60. What is the common association with cold intolerance?
    hypothyroidism
  61. What is the common association with conjugate lateral gaze palsy and horizontal diplopia?
    • internuclear opthalmoplegia
    • damage to MLF (medial longitudinal fasciculus)
    • bilateral: multiple sclerosis
    • unilateral: stroke
  62. What is the common association with a continuous "machinery" heart murmur?
    • PDA
    • tx: close with indomethacin
    • open with misoprostol
  63. What is the common association with cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition?
    • myxedema
    • hypothyroidism
    • Graves' disease: periorbital
  64. What is the common association with dark purple skin/mouth nodules?
    • Kaposi's sarcoma
    • usually AIDS patients
    • associated with HHV-8
  65. What is the common association with deep, labored breathing and hyperventilation?
    • Kussmaul breathing
    • diabetic ketoacidosis
  66. What is the common association with dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea?
    • pellagra
    • niacin (Vit. B3) deficiency
  67. What is the common association with dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, and poyneuropathy?
    • wet beriberi
    • thiamine (Vit. B1) deficiency
  68. What is the common association with a dog or cat bite resulting in infection?
    • Pasteurella multocida
    • cellulitis at inoculation site
  69. What is the common association with dry eyes, dry mouth, and arthritis?
    • Sjogren's syndrome
    • autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands
  70. What is the common association with dysphagia, esophageal webs, glossitis, and iron deficiency anemia?
    • Plummer-Vinson syndrome
    • may progress to esophageal SCC
  71. What is the common association with elastic skin and hypermobility of joints?
    • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
    • type III collagen defect
  72. What is the common association with an enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node?
    • Virchow's node
    • abdominal metastasis
  73. What is the common association with erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical T cells?
    • Sezary syndrome
    • cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    mycosis fungoides
  74. What is the common association with facial muscle spasm upon tapping?
    • Chvostek's sign
    • hypocalcemia
  75. What is the common association with fat, female, forty, and fertile?
    • acute acholelithiasis
    • bile duct blockage
  76. What is the common association with fever, chills, headache, and myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis?
    • Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction
    • rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release
  77. What is the common association with fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, and a diffuse rash?
    • measles
    • Morbillivirus
  78. What is the common association with fever, night sweats, and weight loss?
    B symptoms (lymphoma)
  79. What is the common association with fibrous plaques in the soft tissue of the penis?
    • Peyronie's disease
    • connective tissue disorder
  80. What is the common association with gout, mental retardation, and self-mutilation in a boy?
    • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
    • HGPRT deficiency
    • X-linked recessive
  81. What is the common association with green-yellow rings around the peripheral cornea?
    • Kayser-Fleischer rings
    • copper accumulation
    • Wilson's disease
  82. What is the common association with hamartomatous GI polyps and hyperpigmentation for mouth/feet/hands?
    • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
    • genetic benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction
    • increased cancer risk
  83. What is the common association with hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, and neurologic symptoms?
    • Gaucher's disease
    • glucocerbrosidase deficiency
  84. What is the common association with hereditary nepthritis, sensorineural hearing loss, and cataracts?
    • Alport syndrome
    • mutation in alpha chain of collagen IV
  85. What is the common association with hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis?
    • Trousseau's sign
    • adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung
  86. What is the common association with hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, and hyperdocility?
    • Kluver-Bucy syndrome
    • bilateral amygdala lesion
  87. What is the common association with hyperreflexia, hypertonia, and a positive Babinski sign?
    UMN damage
  88. What is the common association with hypertension hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis?
    • Conn's syndrome
    • aldosterone-producing adenoma
  89. What is the common association with hyporeflexia, hypotonia, and atrophy?
    LMN damage
  90. What is the common association with hypoxemia, polycythemia, and hypercapnia?
    • "Blue Bloater"
    • chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells
  91. What is the common association with indurated, ulcerated genital lesions?
    • nonpainful: chancre, primary syphilis, Treponema pallidum
    • painful, with exudate: chancroid, Haemophilus ducreyi
  92. What is the common association with an infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and neurodegeneration?
    • Niemann-Pick disease
    • genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency
  93. What is the common association with an infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatosplenomegaly?
    • Cori's disease
    • debranching enzyme deficiency
  94. What is the common association with infants with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defects?
    • Edward's syndrome
    • trisomy 18
  95. What is the common association with keratin pearls on a skin biopsy?
    squamous cell carcinoma
  96. What is the common association with a large rash with bull's-eye appearance?
    • erythema chronicum migrans: Ixodes tick bite
    • Lyme disease: Borrelia
  97. What is the common association with a lucid interval after traumatic brain injury?
    • epidural hematoma
    • middle meningeal artery rupture?
  98. What is the common association with a male child who has recurrent infections and no mature B cells?
    • Bruton's disease
    • X-linked agammaglobulinemia
  99. What is the common clinical presentation of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)?
    • prolonged bleeding time
    • mucosal bleeding
  100. What is the common association with multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, and impacted/supernumerary teeth?
    • Gardner's syndrome
    • subtype of FAP
  101. What is the common association with myopathy, especially infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and exercise intolerance?
    • Pompe's disease
    • lysosomal alpha-1,4-glucosidase deficiency
  102. What is the common association with necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis?
    • Wegener's syndrome: c-ANCA positive
    • Goodpasture's syndrome: anti-basement membrane antibodies
  103. What is the common association with a neonate with arm paralysis following a difficult birth?
    • Erb-Duchenne palsy
    • superior trunk (C5-C6) brachial plexus injury: "waiter's tip"
  104. What is the common association with no lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, and cold intolerance?
    • Sheehan's syndrome
    • pituitary infarction
  105. What is the common association with a nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, and bilateral internuclear opthalmoplegia?
    multiple sclerosis
  106. What is the common association with oscillating slow/fast breathing?
    • Cheyne-Strokes respirations
    • central apnea in CHF or increased cranial pressure
  107. What is the common association with painful blue fingers/toes and hemolytic anemia?
    • cold agglutin disease
    • autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    • caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae or infectioius mononucleosis
  108. What is the common association with painful, pale, cold fingers/toes?
    • Raynaud's syndrome
    • vasospasm in extremities
  109. What is the common association with painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles?
    • Osler's node
    • infective endocarditis
  110. What is the common association with painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles?
    • Janeway lesions
    • infective endocarditis
  111. What is the common association with painless jaundice?
    cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct
  112. What is the common association with palpable purpura on buttocks/legs, joint pain, and abdominal pain in a child?
    • Henoch-Schonlein purpura
    • IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys
  113. What is the common association with pancreatic, pituitary, and parathryoid tumors?
    • MEN 1
    • autosomal dominant
  114. What is the common association with pink complexion, cyspnea, and hyperventilation?
    • "Pink Puffer"
    • emphysema
    • centroacinar: emphysema
    • panacinar: alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency
  115. What is the common association with polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, and electrolyte imbalances?
    • Fanconi's syndrome
    • proximal tubular reabsorption defect
  116. What is the common association with a positive anterior "drawer sign"?
    anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
  117. What is the common association with ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis?
    • Horner's syndrome
    • sympathetic chain lesion
  118. What is the common association with a pupil that accomodates but doesn't react?
    • Argyll Robertson pupil
    • neurosyphilis
  119. What is the common association with rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)?
    • Guillain-Barre syndrome
    • autoimmune acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
  120. What is the common association with a rash on palms and soles?
    • Coxsackie A
    • secondary syphilis
    • Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  121. What is the common association with recurrent colds, unusual eczema, and high serum IgE?
    • Hyper-IgE syndrome
    • Job's syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
  122. What is the common association with red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients?
    Klebsiella pneumoniae
  123. What is the common association with red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola?
    • Paget's disease of the breast
    • represents underlying neoplasm
  124. What is the common association with red urine in the morning and fragile RBC's?
    paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  125. What is the common association with renal cell carcinoma (bilateral), hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, and pheochromocytoma?
    • von Hippel-Lindau disease
    • dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation
  126. What is the common association with resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, and postural instability?
    • Parkinson's disease
    • nigrostriatal dopamine depletion
  127. What is the common association with retinal hemorrhages with pale centers?
    • Roth's spots
    • bacterial endocarditis
  128. What is the common association with severe jaundice in neonate?
    • Crigler-Najjar syndrome
    • congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
  129. What is the common association with severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness?
    • McBurney's sign
    • appendicitis
  130. What is the common association with short stature, increased incidence of tumors/leukemia, and aplastic anemia?
    • Fanconi's anemia
    • genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair
    • often progresses to AML
  131. What is the common association with a single palm crease?
    • simian crease
    • Down syndrome
    • Trisomy 21
  132. What is the common association with situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiecstasis, and infertility?
    • Kartagener's syndrome
    • dynein arm defect affecting cilia
  133. What is the common association with skin hyperpigmentation?
    • Addison's disease
    • primary adrenocortical insufficiency
    • increased ACTH and alpha-MSH production
  134. What is the common association with slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
    • Becker's muscular dystrophy
    • X-linked missense mutation in dystrophin
    • less severe than Duchenne's
  135. What is the common association withsmall, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centers?
    • Koplik spots
    • measles
    • rubeola virus
  136. What is the common association with smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals?
    • condylomata lata
    • secondary syphilis
  137. What is the common association with splinter hemorrhages in fingernails?
    bacterial endocarditis
  138. What is the common association with "strawberry tongue"?
    • Scarlet fever
    • Kawasaki disease
    • toxic shock syndrome
  139. What is the common association with streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horeshoe kidney, and cystic hygroma at birth?
    • Turner syndrome
    • 45XO
    • short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema
  140. What is the common association with sudden swolen/painful big toe joint and tophi?
    • gout/podagra
    • hyperuricemia
  141. What is the common association with swollen gums, mucous bleeding, poor wound healing, and spots on skin?
    • scurvy
    • vitamin C deficiency
    • can't hydroxlyate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis
  142. What is the common association with swollen, hard, painful finger joints?
    • osteoarthritis
    • osteophytes on PIP, DIP
  143. What is the common association with systolic ejection murmur with crescendo-decrescendo quality?
    aortic valve stenosis
  144. What is the common association with thyroid and parathyroid tumors and pheochromocytoma?
    • MEN 2A
    • autosomal dominant ret mutation
  145. What is the common association with thyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma, and ganglioneuromatosis?
    • MEN 2B
    • autosomal dominant ret mutation
  146. What is the common association with toe extension or fanning upon plantar scrape?
    • Babinski sign
    • (UMN) lesion
  147. What is the common association with unilateral facial drooping involving forehead?
    • Bell's palsy
    • LMN, CN VII palsy
  148. What is the common association with urethritis, conjunctivits, and arthritis in a male?
    reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27
  149. What is the common association with a vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)?
    • hemangioma
    • benign
    • associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome
  150. What is the common association with vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations?
    • Mallory-Weiss syndrome
    • alcoholic and bulimic patients
  151. What is the common association with "waxy" casts with very low urine flow?
    chronic end-stage renal disease
  152. What is the common association with WBC casts in urine?
    acute pyelonephritis
  153. What is the common association with weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, and adenopathy?
    • Whipple's disease
    • Tropheryma whippelii
  154. What is the common association with a complaint of "the worst headache in my life"?
    subarachnoid hemorrhage

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