EXAM #3.txt

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EXAM #3.txt
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Exam #3
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  1. Explain the fire triangle
  2. 3 states of matter
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
  3. Define pyrolysis
    heat causes matter to offgas and it is the offgassing that ignites
  4. Define fire
    A rapid chemical reaction that produces a release of energy in heat and light
  5. What are the 3 byproducts of combustion?
    • Smoke
    • Flame
    • Heat
  6. Define smoke and what elements can be found within smoke.
    • Smoke is a visible product of incomplete combustion
    • O2, Nitrogen, CO, CO2, carbon, fine soot
  7. How does heat transfer?
    Heat transfers to cold
  8. What are 3 methods of heat transfer?
    • - conduction
    • - Radiation
    • - Convection
  9. Class A
    Normal combustable material
  10. Class B
    Flammable liquid
  11. Class C
    Electrical
  12. Class D
    Combustable metals
  13. Class K
    Cooking oils and fats
  14. What are the 4 phases of fire?
    • Ignition
    • Growth
    • Fully developed
    • Decay
  15. What is the difference between Flashover and backdraft?
    • Flashover - There is an abundance of O2 present and typically takes place during growth or fully developed fire
    • Backdraft - There is a lack of O2 present until you open a window or door, typically in the later stages of fire
  16. Is puffing smoke is a sign of possible flashover or backdraft?
    Backdraft
  17. Flashpoint?
    Lowest temperature which a substance will give a suficient vapour to ignite
  18. Flame point?
    • Also known as Ignition temperature
    • Lowest temperature which a substance will give a suficient vapour to sustain fire
  19. What makes a substance flammable?
    • Any liquid having a flashpoint below 38 degrees celcius and a vapour pressure not exceeding 175KPA
    • (ex. gasoline)
  20. What makes a substance flammable?
    • Anything with a flashpoint above 38 degrees celcius
    • (ex. Diesel)
  21. Vapour density
    The higher the vapour desity, the faster the substance offgasses
  22. LEL / LFL?
    Lower explosion limit / Lower Flammable limit
  23. UEL / UFL?
    Upper explosion limit / Upper Flammable limit
  24. What are the 4 important factors when reading smoke?
    • Velocity
    • Volume
    • Colour
    • Density
  25. What is matter?
    • Made up of Atoms and Molecules
    • 3 states of matter: Solids, Liquid, Gasses
  26. Define a solid?
    • - under normal conditions it retains a definate size and shape
    • - contracts when cooled and expands when heated
    • - may turn to a liquid
  27. Define a liquid?
    • - will assume shape of container
    • - most contract when cooled, expand when heated
    • - may turn to a solid or a gas
  28. Define a gas?
    • - tends to expand indefinitely
    • - may liquify
  29. What is a fuel?
    A form of energy
  30. Mechanical Energy is...
    • converted to heat when two serfaces rub together to create heat
    • - waterfall,
  31. Chemical energy...
    A chemical reaction that causes an exothermic or endothermic reaction (release or absorb heat)
  32. Light energy is...
    - electromagnetic waves traveling as thermal radiation, a form of heat
  33. Nuclear energy is...
    - Fission or fusionwhich release large amounts of heat energy
  34. Oxidation:
    Oxygen combining with something to form a new compound (ex. Rust)
  35. Combustion:
    Oxygen combining with something creates a rapid chemical process creating heat and light (fire)
  36. Pyrolysis:
    Decomposition of a material brought about by heat in the absence of oxygen
  37. Smoke:
    • Incomplete combustion due to a lack of oxygen
    • - solids
  38. **Conduction:
    Transfer of heat through matter by movement of kinetic energy from one partical to another
  39. **Convection:
    Circulatory movement that occurs in gas or liquids with areas of differing temperatures oweing to the variation of density and the action of gravity.
  40. **Radiation:
    Transfer of heat through the emmission of energy in te form of invisible waves
  41. What are the 4 ways to put out a fire?
    • 1. Cool the burning material
    • 2. Exclude oxygen
    • 3. Remove fuel
    • 4. Interupt the chemical reaction with a flame inhibitor
  42. What are the stages of a solid fuel fire?
    • 1. Ignition
    • 2. Growth
    • 3. Fully developed
    • 4. Decay
  43. What stage is Flashover possible?
    Fully developed
  44. Flameover?
    • - AKA rollover
    • Hot gasses rise up to the ceiling and when they reach a sufficient temperature they quickly ignite. burn and fall back down and get sucked back into the fire
  45. Volitility?
    Describes the amount and the ease of ability of the liquid to evaporate to create a flammible vapor-air mixture
  46. Vapour density?
    Weight of a gas as compaired to air
  47. BLEVE
    • Boiling liquid, expanding vapour explosion
    • - BIG propane tanks
    • - liquid boils & expands, relief valve opens, liquid levels fall to a point of the proper mixture then BOOM!
  48. Laminar Smoke flow?
    Relaxed, smooth smoke flow
  49. Turbulent smoke flow?
    Agitated, boiling or angry smoke flow
  50. Black Fire?
    • high volume, high velocity, turbulent, ultra dense black smoke
    • Very hot, impending flashover
  51. If you open a door and the smoke thins but is still in the doorway...
    You are above the fire
  52. If you open a door and the smoke dissappears into the room...
    You are below the fire
  53. If you open a door and the smoke exits the top half of the door and clean air is sucked in the bottom of the door...
    You are on the fire floor
  54. What are the 5 classes of fire?
    Classes A, B, C, D, K
  55. What does PASS mean for a fire extingusher?
    • Pull Pin
    • Aim Nozzle
    • Squeese Trigger
    • Sweep Flames
  56. How is the numerical rating for a fire extinguisher established?
    Based on the size of the fire that the particular fire may extinguish
  57. What are some extinguishing agents? (7)
    • Water
    • CO2
    • Dry chemical
    • Wet chemical
    • Dry powder
    • foam
    • Halogenated agents
  58. Why is water used to extinguish fires?
    • cheap
    • absorbes lots of heat
  59. What is a class A fire?
    Normal Combustable materials
  60. What is a class B fire?
    Flammable liquids
  61. What is a class C fire?
    Electrical
  62. What is a class D fire?
    combustable metals
  63. What is a class K fire?
    Cooking oils and fats
  64. How is the numerical classification of fire extinguishers extablished for a class A extinguisher?
    • 1-40A
    • 5.5L:1
    • If an extingusher can put out the same fire as 5.5L of water it is rated 1A
    • If an extingusher can put out the same fire as 11L of water it is rated 2A
  65. How is the numerical classification of fire extinguishers extablished for a class C extinguisher?
    • 1-640B
    • Is based on the sq ft. of area the extinguisher can put out by an untrained person
  66. What test must a class C extinguishing agent pass?
    It must not conduct electricity
  67. What are the symbols on the fire extingusher letters A, B, C, D, K?
  68. What are the firepass colour codes and what are they for?
    • Green - Main firepass, attached to officers radio
    • Red - backup firepass, given to command on a scene
    • Yellow - Stays on rig to see who should be in the truck, backup if any of the other firepasses are lost
  69. Safety precautions for ladders:
    • - choose proper ladder
    • - check ladder condition
    • - carry ladder at balance point
    • - use legs to lift
    • - carry butt first
    • - buttman in charge
    • - check for hazards
    • - proper climb angle
    • - make sure ladder is secure
    • - dogs properly seated
    • - climb smooth / rythmic
    • - lock in before working
    • - dont overload ladders
    • - use PPE
    • - enough FF's to raise ladder
    • - always use buttman when using
  70. What is the working side of the ladder?
    - side with the most open space in the window
  71. What side of the window do you place the ladder in?
    - upwind, so you can be out of the escaping smoke
  72. How many rungs should be in the window?
    1 or less
  73. When ventilating where does the ladder go?
    beside the window extended to the top of the window
  74. How do you tie a halyard knot?
    2 half hitches
  75. Before you pick up a ladder what side do you face and why?
    face the tip, with opposite shoulder you want to carry on
  76. What type of ladders does CFD use? What are they made of?
    Allumium alloy
  77. What ladders do you find on engines?
    • 7M extension
    • 4M roof
    • folding, collapsible
  78. What ladders do you find on aerials?
    • 4 and 5M roof
    • 6M wall
    • 11M extension
    • 10 or 15M Bangor
  79. How do you cleam a ladder?
    clean dry cloth
  80. How often do you clean and inspect your ladder? What do you look for?
    • 1 x a week or after use
    • look for: rung tightness, boot & rivets, all moving parts, beams and trusses for failure
  81. How often do you test your ladder?
    • - 1 x a year
    • - after unconventional use
    • - after overloading, impact
    • - after being exposed above 149 deg. celcius
    • - after repairs
    • - suspected of being unsafe
  82. Name 8 parts of a Bangor ladder:
    • Beam
    • Rung
    • Tip
    • Butt
    • Butt Plates
    • Bed Section
    • Fly Section
    • Guides
    • Dogs / Paws
    • Halyard
    • Pulley
    • Stops
    • Toggles
    • Tormentor Poles
    • Spurs
  83. How do you carry a ladder as a 1 person carry?
    • - face the butt
    • - fly section away
    • - Verbalize movements
    • - carry at balance point
  84. When raising a roof ladder, which direction do the hooks face?
    Down to the ground and away from the ladder when butted up against extension ladder
  85. What 2 ways can you raise a ladder?
    • flat raise
    • Beam raise
  86. What is the size of a roof ladder?
    4-5M
  87. What is the size of a wall ladder?
    6m
  88. What is the size of an extension ladder?
    7, 10 or 11M
  89. What is the size of a Bangor ladder?
    10-15M
  90. Name the different sizes of hose:
    19, 25, 38, 44, 65, 77, 125 mm
  91. What is a hose called that has been repaired and is shortened?
    a pony length
  92. What is a leader line?
    pre-connected attack line consisting of 60M of hose with a nozzle attached
  93. What is another name of a jacketed hose commonly called forestry hose?
    19mm hose
  94. Rubber lined, double jacketed hose with 38 mm blue coupling
    44mm hose
  95. Rubber lined, rubber covered hose commonly called a booster line.
    25mm hose
  96. Commonly called a washout hose with a red or green coupling
    38mm hose
  97. Stortz coupling commonly called supply hose
    125 mm
  98. What hoses do you find on an engine?
    • 4 lengths 90M of 19mm
    • 1 or 2 lengths of 44mm (trash line)
    • 8 lengths of 44mm, 120M (2 hosebeds of leader lines)
    • 4 lentgths of 65mm, 60M (leader lines)
    • 20 lengths of 65mm, 300M (attack bed)
    • 10 lengths of 125mm, 300M (supply bed)
  99. When is hose tested by CFD?
    • 1 x a year
    • after repairs
    • after hard usage (frozen, extended use)
    • suspicion of damage
  100. Name 4 types of potential damage to a hose:
    • mechanical
    • chemical
    • Mold + mildew
    • heat
  101. Difference between service roll and damaged roll?
    • service - male coupling rolled in
    • damaged - female coupling rolled in, tagged and damaged area marked
  102. Who has thne authority to change your stations total hose compliment?
    CFD apparatus and equipment
  103. How often do you count your stations hose rack compliments?
    daily
  104. If unused, how often do you change the hose loads on an apparatus?
    every 3 months
  105. What do 38mm and 65mm couplings consist of?
    • male threaded shank
    • female threaded swivel
    • a non threaded shank to which female swivel is attached
  106. T or F: a sabrejet nozzle can do both solid and straight streams
    True
  107. What is the most common matrerial used to make couplings?
    pyrolite which is made of an aluminum alloy with a hard coating
  108. Blitzfire or Crossfire: Which nozzle can flow more water?
    • Crossfire - 4750 L/min
    • Blitzfire - 1900 L/min
  109. When advancing hose up a stairway, which line goes up the inside? outside?
    attack line inside and backup outside
  110. How far apart do FF stand when carrying an empty and full hose on the ground? Aloft?
    • Full on level ground 5M (1/3 length)
    • Empty: Ground = 15M Aloft = 7.5M
  111. What is the difference between a tool and an appliance?
    • Appliance = something water flows through
    • Tool = something you use on a hose
  112. What do you need to extend a hose line?
    length of hose, nozzle, hose clamp
  113. What do you need to reduce a hose line?
    hose, nozzle, hose clamp, gated wye
  114. What type of load does CFD use in the hose bed?
    A flat load
  115. What is special about a sabrejet nozzle?
    • Coaxial nozzle
    • higher flow rates at a lower pump pressure
    • solid stream activated with the lever
    • fog and straight stream activated by twisting the bumper
  116. In Ropes and knots what is a bite?
    -Rope that is bent back and not crossed
  117. In Ropes and Knots what do you have when you make a circle in the rope?
    -A loop
  118. Ropes and Knots:Lifting and pike pole?
    -Clove Hitch half hitches, tip up.
  119. What type of Rope is used as a lifeline? What are its properties?
    -Kernmantle Rope, Tight Kern, with mantle sheath wrapping. Mantle takes 30% of the load, Kern takes 70% of the load. Multi coloured which can be static (less colour) Or Dynamic (more Colour)
  120. In Ropes and Knots what facts will you find on a lifeline ID and where is it located?
    • -Located on bothends of the rope
    • -Rope #
    • -Diameter and length
    • -Date of service
  121. How Long is the shelf life on a lifeline rope?
    -5 years max
  122. What are some adcantages of webbing?
    • -Les expensive
    • -High abrasive qualities
    • -supple
    • -high strenght to weight ratio
  123. What are the 4 parts to the care and maintenance of ropes?
    • -Care; Protect from chemicals, Heat, Friction, sharp bends, glazing
    • -Clean; Wash rope (h2O,soap) air dry out of sunlight.
    • -Store; Stuffed in rope bags with figure 8 knots, never store wet or frozen.
    • -Inspect; Look for nicks, bulges, depressions, cuts, dirt, etc.
    • -tag and Remove damaged rope.
  124. What Type of rope is a working rope? what are its Properties?
    • -Laid/Utility Rope
    • -Large Diameter, Braided rope, continuous filament, used for raising tools, 15% weaker when wet, absorbs H2O
  125. Roughly how much strenght do you lose with each knot?
    -30%
  126. What are the 3 things you do when constructing a knot?
    -Dress, set and safety
  127. In Ropes what is a bend?
    -2 ropes connected
  128. What is the end used to tie off on an opbject?
    -working end
  129. what end is the running end?
    -the end that is free
  130. when lifting equipment, how long should your tag end be?
    -1m long
  131. what is the 4 to 1 rule?
    -Strength of nylon rope is diminished once it has been bent to less that 4x the diameter of the rope.
  132. What type of rope floats, and what are its Properties?
    -Double Braided rope made of nylon or spectra. Woven rope of two braided ropes together in a single weave construct. Not for vertical lifting, used for water rescue (throw bags)
  133. Lifting and axe?
    -figure 8 on a bight (safety), wrap around head, 2 half hitches, head down.
  134. Lifting a ladder?
    -large figure 8 on a bight (safety) Lift top end away from building, wrap bight through one third of rungs then around outside and pull.
  135. Lifting a Hose line?
    -6ft of hose, clove hitch over nossel, 2 half hitches.
  136. Lifting a chainsaw.
    -bowline or figure 8 follow though (safety)
  137. How do you joing 2 ropes together?
    -Double fishermans knot
  138. Lifting soft materials?
    • -figure 8 on a bight (safety)
    • -Pull rope through bight, place soft material between new loop ,cinch while lifting.
  139. Secure a tight line?
    -in line butterfly, rope through, ti over and slip knot then overhand keeper, then safety.
  140. What is meant by conventional vehicle?
    A vehicle that has an internal combustion engine for power. (gas or diesel)
  141. What are some alternate powered vehicles?
    • - compressed natural gas
    • - propane
    • - electric
  142. What is the difference between a hybrid and an electric powered vehicle?
    • hybrid - both electric and gas
    • electric - batteries only
  143. Standard terminology for parts of a vehicle:
    • Engine
    • trunk
    • left - driver side
    • right - passenger side
    • A, B, C, D Posts
    • bulkhead / firewall
  144. What do you look for in an initial size up?
    • - location
    • - direction
    • - traffic
    • - access
    • - hazards
    • - victims + injuries
    • - 360 degree walk around
    • - resources
    • - speak to dispatch
  145. What are the 3 types of stabilization and in what order are they completed?
    • 1. scene
    • 2. vehicle
    • 3. Patient
  146. What is the golden hour?
    Time from the accident to arrival in the emergency room
  147. What is the platinum 10?
    Time from crew arrival until having patient en route to hospital
  148. What is the difference between a platform frame and a unibody construction?
    • Platform: uses beams as the main frame. Engine, transmission and body components attach to the frame. (trucks and SUV's)
    • Unibody: Combines vehicle body and frame into 1 component. (lighter weight vehicles)
  149. What circles are performed around Vx? What order? Distances from the vehicle?
    • Outer circle first 5-10M
    • Inner circle second 3-5M
  150. Where are the Vx tools placed when performing an extraction?
    Staging area - outside inner circle
  151. Name the different ways to stabilize a vehicle:
    • - Cribbing - wedges, 2x4, 4x4, step chocks
    • - Rescue 42
  152. What type of lift bags does the CFD use? What are they made of?
    High pressure lift bags made of vulcanized rubber mats reinforced by steel or other material woven into a fibre mat, then covered with rubber
  153. T or F: It is not acceptable to use lift bags to stabilize a car by themselves.
    true
  154. How often do you check cribbing?
    Every 3-5 minutes or after metal is displaced
  155. What is the difference between laminated and tempered glass?
    • Laminated: front windshield and sometimes the rear windshield, broken with a glass master or axe
    • Tempered glass: most windows and broken by a center punch or life hammer
  156. What are the 2 things FF's MUST do before breaking glass?
    • - warn people you are about to break glass
    • - wear your dust mask
  157. T or F: You should always cut te post closest to the patient first.
    False
  158. What is the 5-10-20 rule?
    • Distance to be clear of the airbags
    • 5 - side air bags
    • 10 - driver air bags
    • 20 - passenger air bags
  159. What 2 sayings are important to remember as firefighters are extricating a vehicle?
    "Strip and rip" and "Try before you pry"
  160. What are you looking for while you are stripping and ripping?
    for Suplimental restraint system like airbag cylinders abd auto pretensioners in seatbelts
  161. How do you disconnect a battery?
    • Disconnect negative wire and tape it back.
    • Last resort: cut the negative wire
  162. VX: Where should you enter the vehicle?
    Through the largest opening furthest from the patient
  163. What are two main control valves for sprinkler systems?
    • Outside stem and Yoke valve (OS&Y)
    • Post Indicator Valve
  164. What are 2 ways of controling water within a house after putting out the fire?
    • Water Chute
    • Water catch all
  165. What are two ways of folding salvage covers?
    • Dry fold (accordion)
    • Wet fold
  166. When you dry fold a salvage cover in the accordion, how long should the fold be?
    25CM
  167. What are the 3 ways of spreading salvage covers?
    • One person throw
    • 2 man baloon
    • Counter payoff
  168. How do you attach 2 salvage covers?
    • - spread 1 salvage cover out
    • - fold 1 edge back 30CM
    • - Lay out the 2nd salvage cover so the 2 edges meet
    • - Roll the folded edge backuntil the salvage covers meet
  169. How do you carry a used salvage cover?
    The Santa Clause carry
  170. How do you set up a pike pole water chute?
    • - spread out alvage cover
    • - place pike pole on diagonals in the 2 top corners
    • - fold tarp over pike pole, then role the tarp towards the middle
    • - turn overthe entire setup so it does not unroll
  171. What are a few ways you can make a water chute?
    • - pike poles
    • - ladder
    • - stairway
  172. How do you unroll a hall runner?
    Bowling
  173. What is the normal size of a salvage cover at CFD?
    3M x 4M
  174. What are the 2 different types of salvage covers?
    • 1. Closely woven, waterproof canvas
    • 2. Herculite (lightweight, chemically inert, waterproof)
  175. Absorbant Pad
  176. allan wrenches
  177. Ball Peen Hammer
  178. channel groove multi lock pliars
  179. vice grips with round bar welded on the grippers
    vice grip shut off
  180. cone shaped threads with a bult top
    Natural Gas Plugs
  181. Claw Hammer
  182. cold chisel
  183. crescent wrench
  184. Dead Blow Hammer
  185. Flood Lamp
  186. Hand Cord Reels
  187. linesman pliars
  188. Lino Knife
  189. Long nose pliars
  190. Pipe Wrench
  191. portable spotlight
  192. Show me light
  193. side cutters
  194. single tip screwdriver
  195. slip joint pliers
  196. sockets
  197. survivor light
  198. Thorn light
  199. Tin Snips
  200. uni-driver
  201. Utility knife
  202. Vice grip
  203. What is in a high rise tool bag?
    • 10'' crate bar
    • 10 door keepers
    • 10 door wedges
    • 2 sprinkler wedges
    • 2 x 65mm spanners
    • 65mm in-line pressure gauge
    • 65 to 38mm gated wye
    • 2 x 65mm, 60 degree elbows
    • 18'' aluminum pipe wrench
    • 2 x door marker crayons
    • side cutters
  204. What is in a Vx tool belt?
    • multi groove pliars
    • Felt marker
    • single tip (flathead) screwdriver
    • medical sissors
    • life hammer
    • side cutters
    • duct tape
  205. Bolt Cutters
  206. Crate bar
  207. electric ppv fan
  208. Fire Axe
  209. Hack Saw
  210. Halligan tool
  211. Hand saw
  212. Hydrant shut off key
  213. Lath
  214. Mini grinder
  215. Pintch point pry bar
  216. Pry Axe
  217. Rotary saw
  218. sledge axe
  219. Sledge hammer
  220. Smoke ejector with hooks
  221. water turnoff key
  222. Wrecking bar
  223. Describe BVM, NRB and NC
    • - BVM 90-100% at 10-15LPM
    • - NRB 60-90% at 10-15LPM
    • - NC 25-30% at 2-6LPM
  224. Thoracic Trauma
    • - tracheal deviation
    • - Asymmetrical movement
    • - Neck veins distended
    • - Abnormal breath sounds
    • - Shock
    • - Subcutaneous emphysema
    • - chest wall contusion / open wounds
    • - Cyanosis, chest pain, SOB
  225. Open pheumothorax
    • - open chest wound, air enteres into plural space, squishes lung to collapse, then possible tension pneumothorax
    • - Hypoxia
    • - shallow breathing
    • - guarging wound
    • initial=hand on wound
    • secondary=3 sided occlusive dressing
  226. Flail Chest
    • - 3+ ribs broken in 2+ places in succession
    • - paridoxical motion
    • - SOB
    • - guarding
    • - pulse up
    • - BP up
    • Watch out for pulinary contusion / Hemothorax / pneumothorax
  227. Tension Pneumothorax
    • - Lungs popped, air fills plural space and begins to push on other chest cavity organs
    • - SOB, fast and shallow
    • - Breath sounds diminished
    • - JVD
    • - tracheal deviation
    • - Tacypnea
    • - Anxiety
    • - Dyspnea
  228. Massive Hemothorax
    • - Blood fills the plural space
    • - anxiety and confusion
    • - neck veins flat = hypovolemia
    • - breath sounds decreased
    • - Shock
  229. Cardiac Tamponalde
    • - blood fills the sac around the heart
    • -Becks Triad (hypotension, neck veins distended, heart sounds muffled)
    • - peridoxical pulse
    • - breath sounds equal
    • Watch out for hemothorax and pneumothorax
  230. Myocardial Contusion
    • - blunt chest injury
    • - similar to MI and Angina
    • Watch for cardiac tamponalde, hemothorax and pneumothorax
  231. AAA and Tramatic Aortic Rupture
    • - MVC's and falls from height (90% immidiate death)
    • - scene size up and history is extremely important
    • (no obvious sign of chest trauma, hypertension in upper extremities
  232. What is shock?
    - Inadequate perfusion of tissues
  233. What are the 4 causes of shock?
    • - pump problem (heart)
    • - fluid volume issue
    • - air exchange issue
    • - Vascular system issue
  234. What are the 2 types of shock?
    • Compinsated - Body is trying to fix itself
    • Decompinsated - Body gives up
  235. Signs and symptoms of Compinsated shock?
    • - thirst
    • - diaphoresis (sweaty)
    • - Breathing fast
    • - fast pulse
    • - periferal pulses weakened
  236. Signs and symptoms of decompinsated shock?
    • - Altered mental status
    • - Acidosis (less O2in body makes it acidic)
    • - Leads to cardiac arrest
  237. What Are the Vital signs all FF's must know?
    • - Pulse
    • - BP
    • - Respirations
    • - Pupils
    • - LOC
    • - SPO2
    • - Skin
    • we dont check but we should know:
    • - BGL
    • - EtCO2
  238. What 7 places can we check the patients pulse?
    corodid (neck), breakeal (bicep), radial (wrist), femorial, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, posterior tibialis
  239. What is the normal pulse range for an adult, child and infant?
    • Adult - 60-100
    • Child - 80-120
    • Infant - 120-140
  240. What is EtCO2?
    - the amount of Co2 being exhaled
  241. What is the normal range of EtCO2?
    35-40mmHg
  242. How does EtCO2 help you?
    • It tell you during CPR if you are:
    • - If the EtCO2 reads high, speed up ventilations (hyperventilation)
    • - If the EtCO2 reads low, slow down ventilations (hypoventilation)
  243. SpO2 is...
    How many O2 is sticking to the hempglobin in the blood.
  244. What is the range of SPo2 readings?
    90-100%
  245. What are the two substances that will give your SPO2 a false reading?
    - carbon monoxide and cyonide
  246. How do you check LOC?
    • AVPU - Alert, verbal, pain, unresponsive
    • Orientation - Name, time, place, event
    • A + O X 3
  247. What is the BP normal range?
    100/76 - 140/90
  248. What are you checking on the skin?
    Temperature, condition, colour
  249. What does it mean if the pupils are not even or reactive?
    - swelling in your head. Possible head trauma.
  250. What is the normal temperature of a human?
    - 36.9 or 98.6 degrees
  251. What is a normal BGL?
    - 4-8
  252. Medical
    • - Miocardial Infarction, AAA Abdominal Aortic anuerizm, Angina, Ateriosclerosis,
    • Congestive Heart Failure, Stroke, Trans ischemic attack, Sepsis, Pericarditis.
  253. What is an MI?
    • - Miocardial Infarction
    • - death of tissue surrounding the heart
  254. What are some signs and symptoms of an MI?
    • - Pain (clutching of the chest)
    • - Reffered Pain (radiating) to the left arm, shoulder jaw.
    • - Rapid Breathing, and increased heart rate.
    • - irregular Pulse
    • - Described like bad indigestion
    • - BECKS TRIAD muffeled heart sounds, increased
  255. What two things make you think MI?
    • 1. pain or discomfort in the chest/left arm/neck
    • 2. SOB
  256. Angina?
    • A temporary blockage around the heart, (fake MI)
    • MI is imminant (sooner or later), take to hospital
  257. Stroke?
    Blockage around the brain (MI of the brain)
  258. TIA?
    • Temporary blockage around the brain.
    • Stroke is imminant (sooner or later), take to hospital
  259. CHF?
    • Conjestive heart failure (Fluid in Lungs)
    • - usually smokers with COPD
    • - do not lay them down
  260. Sepsis?
    • - blood infection throughout body
    • - look like shit and stink
  261. Aortic Dissection?
    • Tearing of Aorta due to trauma
    • trauma version of Abdominal Aortic anurism
    • - good pulse above heart, poor pulse below heart
  262. Cardiac Tamponade
    • - sqeezing of heart due to swelling
    • - JVD is apparent
  263. How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Adult CPR.
    - 30:2
  264. How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Adult CPR.
    - 30:2
  265. How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Child CPR.
    - 30:2
  266. How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Infant CPR.
    - 30:2
  267. How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Child CPR.
    - 15:2
  268. How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Infant CPR.
    - 15:2
  269. What are battle signs?
    Brusing behind the ears. Sign of head trauma and bleeding.
  270. What are raccoon eyes?
    Immidiate Black eyes. Sign of head trauma and bleeding.
  271. What is the secondary injury when you have a brain injury?
    Hypoxia and decreased perfusion.
  272. What are some signs and symptoms of a concussion?
    • - sometimes no visible trauma
    • - retrograde short term amnesia
    • - dizziness, headache, ringing in ears, nausea
  273. What are some signs and symptoms of a cerebral contusion?
    • - Altered LOC
    • - confusion
    • - personality changes
    • - focal neurological signs
  274. Acute Epidural Hematoma
    • - Arterial bleed
    • - initial LOC
    • symptoms - one dialated fixed pupil, increased ICP, uncoscious, paralysis, death
  275. Acute Subdural Hematoma
    • - venous bleed
    • - Altered LOC
    • - Headache
    • - Focal neurologic signs
    • HIGH RISK: Alcoholics, elderly, ppl on blood thinners
  276. Cerebral Hemorrage
    • - Arterial or venus
    • - Altered LOC
    • Symptoms - Headache, vomiting, pattern similar to stroke
  277. Increasing pulse, ~ resps and decreasing pulse means?
    • - Cerebral Herniation Syndrome
    • - herniation outweighs hypoxia
    • - must hyperventilate to restrict vessels in brain and give space to swell
    • - (AND GET TO HOSPITAL QUICK)
  278. You must hyperventilate in what circumstances?
    • - TBI, GCS<9, decerebrate posture
    • - TBI, GCS<9, dialated or non reactive pupils
    • - TBI, GCS<9, then drops another 2 points
    • **If these symptoms resolve themselves, stop hyperventilating**
  279. What are a few signs and symptoms of a spinal injury?
    • - neck and pack pain
    • - guarding (not moving)
    • - numbness and tingleing
    • - PMS check
    • - Priaprism
    • - neurogenic shock
    • - loss of bowels and bladder control
    • - deformity
  280. Emergency rescue
    • - Pull the patient to safety by any means possible to safe their life
    • - seconds to get oout
    • - c spine is not a factor
  281. Rapid extraction
    • - you have a little longer time to place c-collar and put on backboard quickly then move to safety.
    • - 1-2 mins
  282. Ligament
    - bone to bone attachment
  283. Tendon
    - muscle to bone
  284. Sprain
    - ligaments
  285. Strain
    - tendons
  286. Neurogenic Shock
    • - hypotension
    • - normal skin temp and colour
    • - inappropriately slow heart rate
  287. Ked strap procedure saying...
    - My baby likes to party hard
  288. Decorticate posture
    • - arms flexed posture
    • - GCS of 3
  289. Decrebrate posture
    • - arms extended posture
    • - GCS of 2
  290. Prone position
    - on stomache
  291. Supine
    - on back
  292. Helmet removal procedure
    • 1.Manual C spine
    • 2. Cut strap
    • 3 change c spine control
    • 4. pull helmet
    • 5. remove by rocking (avoid noise)
    • 6. Pause prior to removal / taking weight off head
    • 7. check helmet for damage
  293. Types of Open fracture (compound)
    • - simple
    • - compound
  294. Types of closed fracture
    • - greenstick
    • - spiral
    • - simple
    • - transverse
  295. How much blood is lost when you fracture 1 femur?
    - 1 liter
  296. How much blood is lost when you have a pelvic fracture
    - 500cc for each fracture
  297. What do you check on a patient if you find a dislocation or fracture?
    - check distal pulse
  298. Do you try to reset a dislocation if you dont find a distal pulse?
    NO!
  299. Do you try to reset a fracture if you dont find a distal pulse?
    Yes!
  300. What do you do if you find a fracture that has a distal pulse?
    - splint it
  301. What do you check after splinting?
    - Distal PMS
  302. What do you do with an amputation?
    • - Deal with the patient first.
    • - Put amputated parts in bag, then that bag into bag#2 full of ice.
  303. What should the splint secure?
    - the joint above and below the fracture
  304. With extreme non stop bleeding what is the process you follow?
    gauze,wipe for 1 look, gauze, more gauze, more gauze, try to put pressure above the wound, LAST RESORT tournaque
  305. If extenuating blood loss is prevelent, what must you remember?
    - CAB
  306. What is compartment syndrome?
    • - pain + paresthesia (numbnesss)
    • - pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis
  307. What splint do you use with an open fracture?
    - rigid splint
  308. What types of splints are there?
    • - Rigid
    • - Pneumatic "air"
    • - Vaccum
    • - Pillow
  309. What is wrong if there is external rotation of the leg and that leg is shorter than the other?
    • - granny broken hip
    • - also known as broken femoral neck and broken hip
  310. What makes a "load and go"?
    • - LOC
    • - Airway compermise
    • - Breathing
    • - irculation
    • - Unstable pelvis
    • - 2 femur brakes
    • - Tender / Distended abdomen
    • - 3m+ fall
  311. When checking breath sounds what does it mean if you find or ?
    • - Hypo_tympany is for hemo (blood)
    • - Hyper_tympany is for air
  312. AVPU orientation questions, What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - testing LOC
    • - Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive
    • - name, place, time, event
  313. DIRT What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - distention
    • - injection sites
    • - rigidity
    • - tenderness
  314. AEIOU and TIPS What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - Alcohol, epilepsy, insulin, overdose, uremia
    • - Trauma, infection, poisoning, shock
  315. RRQ What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - pulse
    • - rate, rhythm, quality
  316. RRD What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - breathing
    • - rate, rythem, depth
  317. SAMPLE What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - start of secondary survey
    • - signs and symptoms
    • - allergies
    • - medications
    • - past medical history
    • - last oral intake
    • - events prior
  318. OPQRSTU What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - after sample in secondary survey
    • - onset
    • - provokes (anything make it worse?)
    • - Quality (describe the pain)
    • - Radiates (pain anywhere else?)
    • - Severity (out of 10)
    • - Treatment (has anyone tried to help you?)
    • - What do U think it is?
  319. What locations do you have to know about the brain?
    • Frontal lobe - frontal bone
    • temporal lobe - temporal bone
    • occipital lobe - occipital bone
    • parietal lobe - parietal bone
  320. Acute Epidural Hematoma
    • - Arterial bleed
    • - initial LOC
    • symptoms - one dialated fixed pupil, increased ICP, uncoscious, paralysis, death
  321. Acute Subdural Hematoma
    • - venous bleed
    • - Altered LOC
    • - Headache
    • - Focal neurologic signs
    • HIGH RISK: Alcoholics, elderly, ppl on blood thinners
  322. Cerebral Hemorrage
    • - Arterial or venus
    • - Altered LOC
    • Symptoms - Headache, vomiting, pattern similar to stroke
  323. Bradycardia?
    - Lower HR than normal range
  324. Tachycardia?
    - Higher HR than normal range
  325. Diaphoretic?
    - Sweatty
  326. Hypertensive?
    - Higher BP than normal range
  327. Hypotensive?
    - Lower BP than normal range
  328. DCAPBLS TICS?
    • Deformaties, contusions, abrasions, penetrations, burns, lacerations, swelling
    • Tenferness, intsability, crepitis, subcutaneous emphasema
  329. Systolic?
    • When the heart contracts
    • Top # on a BP reading
  330. Diastolic?
    • When the heart relaxes
    • Bottom # on a BP reading
  331. cyonotic?
    Blueish colour - lack of O2
  332. Jaundice?
    Yellowing of the body
  333. LLL refers to:
    Left Lower lung
  334. RML refers to:
    Right middle lung
  335. RUQ refers to?
    Right upper quadrent
  336. LLQ:
    Left lower quadrent
  337. What is it called when somebody has BGL above 8?
    Hyperglycemia
  338. What is hypoglycemia?
    BGL below the average of 4-8
  339. What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?
    • Sign - you can see what is happening
    • Symptom - Is what the patient feels
  340. Angina is to MI as TIA is to...
    • Stroke.
    • TIA and Angina are temporary blockages
  341. JVD is:
    Jugular Vein Distention
  342. Tacypnea
    Rapid breathing, above 20 resps/min
  343. Dyspnea
    Breathlessness
  344. Diaphoresis
    profuse sweating
  345. Airway adjuncts
    • In order to ensure an open airway
    • - oropharyngeal airway
    • - nasopharyngeal airway
  346. What is the difference between oxygenation and ventilation?
    • Oxygenationation = put o2 in blood for body = SpO2 measurement
    • Ventilation = us breathing for someone = EtCO2 measurement
  347. APGAR What does it mean and when do you use it?
    Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration
  348. What is type 1 diabetes
    - insulin dependent
  349. What is type 2 diabete
    - sugar dependent
  350. Irregular Resperations, Increased BP, Decreased pulse
    • - Cushings Response, Cerebral hemorrahage, incresased icp
    • -treated by hyperventilation to contract the cerebral arteries and veins
  351. JVD, Muffled heart sounds, Low Blood Pressure
    • -Becks Triad = Cardiac Tamponade
    • Watch out for: hemothorax / pneumothorax
  352. Shallow breathing, guarding around chest, sucking chest wound
    • - Open pneumothorax
    • initial - hand on hole
    • Secondary - 3 sided occlusive
  353. 3+ ribs broken in 2+ places in succession
    • - Flail chest
    • initial - support with hand
    • secondary - ball of gauze, pushed in slightly to support the flail section
    • Watch for: Pulminary contusion / hemothorax / pneumothorax
  354. Breath sounds decreased (hypertympany when percussed), SOB fast and shallow, dimished breath sounds, JVD, tracheal deviation
    • - Tension pneumothorax
    • - give low flow O2, careful not to make the problem worse
  355. Breath sounds decreased (hypotympany when percussed), shock, confusion
    • - Massive Hemothorax
    • initial - possible o2
    • Secondary - treat for shock
  356. chest pain, dysrythmias, cardiagenic shock
    • - myocardial contusion (very similar to MI)
    • initial - possible O2
  357. MVC's or falls from height, pulsating mass in the abdomen
    • - Traumatic Aortic rupture (or AAA)
    • Nothing you can do!
  358. Altered LOC, confusion, amnesia, personality changes, focal neurological signs
    • - Cerebral contusion
    • - deal with secondary injuries (shock, LOC, CAB)
  359. Increased ICP symptoms are:
    increased BP, decreased pulse and ~ resps
  360. Absolute hypovolemia
    • - fast pulse
    • - flat neck veins
    • - weak radial pulse
    • - pale skin
  361. Relative Hypovolemia (high space) shock
    • Injury - low pulse, pink, Flat neck veins, absent PMS in extremities
    • Poisoned - fast heart, pale, flat neck veins
  362. Mechanical (Obstructive/cardiogenic) shock
    • - caused due to:
    • - Tension pneumothorax
    • - cardiac tamponade
    • - myocardial contusion
    • S/S
    • - quick resps
    • - weak pulse
    • - pale, cool, diaphoretic
  363. Diabetes is:
    • - a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar
    • - the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced
    • - Symptoms of frequent urination, increased thirst and increased hunger

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