BIOL 2420 Practical 2

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  1. Urease Test is for?
    Ability of bacteria to breakdown urea, acid to ammonia (base)

    +Test: Chg from red to pink due alkaline
  2. Citrate utilization Test is for?
    Ability of bacteria to use citrate as a source of carbon

    +Test: Chg from green to prussian blue
  3. Lipid Hydrolysis Test is for?
    Ability of breakdown of fats / lipids. Enzymes converts lipids to glycerol and fatty acid.

    +Test: Spirit blue darker blue around bacteria
  4. Lactose fermentation test is for?
    Ability to convert lactose to glucose with acid production.

    +Test: Phenol red changes to Yellow color
  5. Protozoa: Sarcodinas
    move by means of pseudopodia or false-feet. Irregular outer shape!

    • Image Upload
    • 1. Entamoeba histolytica(diarrhea)

    2. Amoeba proteus

    3. Naegleria (encephalitis)

    4. Acanthamoeba (blindness)

    Image Upload
  6. Protozoa: Ciliata
    move by coordinated beating of numerous cilia.

    • 1. Balantidium coli (diarrhea)
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    • 2. Paramecium
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  7. Protozoa: Mastigophora
    have flagella that can undulate to propel the organism.

    • Image Upload
    • 1. Giardia lamblia (diarrhea)
    • 2. Trichomonas vaginalis (vaginitis)
    • 3. Trypanosoma (african sleeping sickness)
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  8. Protozoa: Sporozoa
    intracellular parasites and don't move in adult stage. Some have motile stages.

    • 1. Plasmodium species (malaria)
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    • 2. Taxoplasma gondil (sickle)
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    • CYSTS - do not move, resistant structures to allow organism to survive drying and severe conditions!
  9. Hydrogen sulfide test is for? and uses what agar?
    • In Kliger's Iron Agar
    • Cystiene maybe broken down to generate pyruvic acid and releasing H2S. (anaerobic respiration use S as final e- acceptor)
    • + Test: black percipitate form iron sulfide
  10. Mannitol fermentation test is for?
    Ability to convert mannitol to glucose with acid production of acidic products

    + Test:the phenol red changes color to yellow
  11. Sucrose fermentation test is for?
    ability to convert sucrose to glucose with production of acidic products

    + Test:the phenol red changes color to yellow
  12. Glucose fermentation test is for?
    the ability to ferment glucose with production of acidic product and gas

    + Test:the phenol red changes color to yellow
  13. Starch hydrolysis test is for?
    Enzyme called amylase converts starch to glucose for energy production.

    + Test: After Iodine dropped it will react with starch, but will show lack of color around the bacterial growth.
  14. Nitrase (nitrate reduction) test is for?
    Ability to reduce nitrate.

    + Test: Add Reagent A&B to form red color which is nitrite

    If no red, then dust ZINC Powder to produce nitrite.

    If no red, then indicate reduction for other products than nitrate
  15. Esculin hydrolysis test is for? (Bile esculin test)
    Ability to breakdown carbohydrate esculin.

    + Test: production of BLACK product from breakdown of esculin
  16. Tryptophan hydrolysis test is for? (INDOLE test)
    Identifying bacteria that contains enzyme tryptophanase which converts tryptophan to pyruvic acid and indole.

    + Test: After adding Kovak's reagent Red color is Kovak's layer
  17. Voges Proskauer test is for?
    Fermentation in MR-VP broth with production of non acidic products butanediol

    Add Barritt's reagent A&B (Vogse Proskauser)

    + Test: RED color is formed
  18. Catalase test is for?
    presence of catalase in the bacterium

    Add Hydrogen Peroxide to isolated bacteria

    +Test: Gas bubbles
  19. Methyl Red test is for?
    fermentation in VP-MR broth with producton of VERY acidic mix lower than pH 5

    + Test: Add Methyl Red, red color remains after one drop.
  20. FUNGI: Ascomycetes or ascomycotina
    Spores in sacs (looks like a pea pod or stacked rocks)

    • 1. Pezziza species
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    SEXUAL and Asexual structures
  21. FUNGI: Basidomycetes or basidomycotina
    Spores rising from supporting cell (structure) call basidium - cubiodal shape with the hype scattered on top.

    • 1. Coprinus (looks like a flower with specks)
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    SEXUAL and Asexual structures
  22. FUNGI: Zygomycetes or zycomycotina
    Spore (a zygote) formed between the mating hyphi

    • 1. Rhizopus (looks like two bulbs/ rods with dark round zygote in the middle)
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    SEXUAL structure
  23. FUNGI: Deuteromycetes or deuteromycotina
    Non Sexual Spores - smaller rounded cells associated at the end of arial hyphae

    • 1. Pencillin
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    2. Aspergillus

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    (both are cubish shape with hyphae hairs at 40x)

  24. How do fungal cells obtain their nutrients?

    How do protozoan cells feed?
    Fungal cell land on with enzymes then digest (nonphotosythetic)

    Protozoans engulf their food (endocytosis)
  25. Why do fungi mainly cause skin and respiratory disease?
    Spores are airborne --

    • Inhalation >> respiratory disease
    • Land on skin >> skin disease
  26. What disease are caused by feces in water?
    • 1. Cholera
    • 2. Shigellosis
    • 3. Hepatitis A
  27. What information is obtained by using EMB plate?
    EMB (eosin methyl blue) confirms the bacteria is e.Coli

    Also - do a gram stain - negative rod to confirm.
  28. What method can be used to find MPN of e.Coli?
    Pour plate or Spread plate can deterimine the most probable number (MPN).
  29. What is the importance of boiling the preparation of yogurt?
    Boiling kills the other organism, the you add the bacteria you want.

    Also it avoids it from smelling bad!
  30. 3 Roles Microbes play in our food?
    1. Part of the food

    2. Making the food (eg: yogurt)

    3. By-standard (bacteria can drop in food - but are harmless)

    and sometimes pathogenic.
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BIOL 2420 Practical 2
2011-12-12 04:19:19
BIOL 2420

Microbiology Lab Practical 2...
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