Biology 121

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  1. Plant reproduction is characterized by a type of life cycle called________?
    Alteration of generations
  2. The multicellular diploid stage in the life cycle of a plant; produces haploid, asexual spores through meiosis.
    Diploid sporophyte
  3. The haploid spores develop into multicellular, haploid bodies called________
  4. Haploid spores produced....
    via meiosis.
  5. Haploid gametes produced...
    via mitosis.
  6. Zygotes are formed by....
    The fusion of two haploid gametes.
  7. _________- anchor and get water and nutrients; all land plants.
    Roots/root-like structures
  8. ______limits water loss.
    Waxy cuticle
  9. _____exchanges gas and limits water loss; all land plants.
  10. _______transports water and minerasl in the plant; vascular plants.
    Conducting vessels
  11. ________increases rigidity, thereby increasing sun exposure; vascular plants.
  12. ________- disperses male gametes without water; gymnosperms and angiosperms.
  13. _____ protects and feeds the plant embryo; gymnosperms and angiosperms.
  14. What is the Evolutionary Origin of Plants?
    • -Green algae gave rise to plants.
    • -the ancestors of plants lived in fresh water.
  15. Bryophytes lacks what conducting structure?
    • - Rhizoids
    • - vascular tissue and lignin
    • - Reproductive structures
  16. _____ grow in moist, shaded areas, and the sperm must swim up the stalks through a film of water to fertilize the eggs.
  17. _______ have stalks that carry spore-bearing capsules.
    Moss plants
  18. Why are all bryophytes short?
    Their size is limited due to the lack of vascular tissue and lignin.
  19. Bryophytes leafy green gametophyte is the ______ generation that produces sperm and eggs.
    - Haploid
  20. Moss plants. the short, leafy green plants are ________ gametophytes; the reedish brown stalks are _________ sporophytes.
    • - Haploid
    • - Diploid
  21. What are the major groups of plants?
    • - Bryophytes
    • - Vascular plants
  22. _______ have conducting vessels that also provide support.
    -Lignin adds extra support, so plants grow taller then nonvascular plants.
    -Sporophyte stage is larger and more conspicuous than the gametophyte.
    Vascular plants
  23. Seedless Vascular Plants include....
    • - Club Mosses
    • - Horsetails
    • - Ferns
  24. _____ stiffening substance, which is a rigid polymer that impregnates the conducting cells and supports the plant body, helping the plant expose maximum surface area to sunlight.
  25. _______ produce swimming sperm, so water is essential for reproduction and are found in moist woodland habitats.
    Seedless Vascular Plants
  26. _____are the most diverse seedless vascular plants.
    -Broad leaves unlike other seedless vascular plants. -Sporangia produce spores on special leaves
  27. Seedless vascular plants that grows in temperate forests, and is sometimes called ground pines.
    Club mosses
  28. Seedless vascular plant that extends long, narrow branches in a series of rosettes, and its leaves are insignificant scales
  29. The Seed Plants dominate land aided by two important adaptions: _______ and _______.
    • - Pollen
    • - Seeds
  30. _____transports the sperm without water, and can be dispersed by wind or animals
  31. _____ protects embryo and maintains dormancy.
    Seed coat
  32. Non-flowering seed plants are______.
  33. The _________ (Gymnosperm) is the sporophyte generation and bears both male and female cones.
    Pine tree
  34. A member of a group of nonflowering vascular plants whose members reproduce by means of seeds formed inside cones; retains its leaves throughout the year.
  35. _____attract pollinators, develop on the dominant sporophyte plant, and produce male and female gametophytes.
  36. Male gametophytes (pollen grains) are produced within ______.
  37. _______develops from a spore within the ovule, and contains one egg cell.
    Female gametophytes
  38. _________ transport sperm from the flower stigma to the egg in the ovary.
    Pollen tubes
  39. Plant embryo enclose in a _______ formed from the ovule.
  40. ____ is the smallest angiosperm found floating on ponds.
    -About 1/8 inch (3 millimeters) in diameter.
  41. The largest angiosperms are __________, which can reach 325 feet (100 meters) in height.
    - Eucalyptus trees
  42. The dominant plant body is the __________, whose flowers normally produce both male and female gametophytes.
    - Diploid sporophyte
Card Set
Biology 121
Chapter 21
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