SOC chapter 11

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119353
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SOC chapter 11
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2011-11-28 09:32:40
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chapter 11
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  1. race
    • a socially constructive category of people who share biologically
    • transmitted traits thay members of a society consider important
  2. the meaning and iimportance of race
    • differs from place to place
    • changed overtime
  3. racial types
    scientists invented this to organize:-caucasoid: light skin fine hair-negroid: dark skin coarse hair-mongoloid: yellow skin and eye folds
  4. trent to mixture
    people are more willing to be "multi cultural"
  5. ethnicity
    a shared cultural heritage (common language, ancestors, religion) cultural traits
  6. minorities
    share a distinct identityexperience subordinationnot all members of minorities are disadvantaged
  7. prejudice
    • a rigid and unfair
    • generalization about an entire category of people (rooted in culture so
    • everyone has some measure of prejudice)
  8. stereotypes
    an exxagerated description applied to every person in some category
  9. racism
    the belief that racial category is innatley inferior or superior to anotherpowerful and harmful form of prejudicewidespread throughout USremains a problem
  10. scapegoat theory of prejudice
    prejudice springs from frustration among people who are themselves disadvantged
  11. cuture theory
    claims that although extreme prejudic is found in certain people, some prejudics is found in everyone
  12. conflict theory
    proposed that prejudice is used as a tool by powerful people to oppress others
  13. discrimination
    unequal treatment of various categories of people, taking action
  14. authoritarian personality theory
    extreme prejudice is a personality trait of certain individuuals
  15. insitutional prejudice and discrimination
    bias built into the operation of society's institutinos people are slow to condemn or recognize institutional prejudice
  16. preudice and discrimination: vicsious cycle
    • situtations that are defined as real become real in their consequences
    • (stereotypes: real to people who believe them, real to those victimized
    • by them
  17. pluralism
    a state in which people of all races and ethnicites are distinct but have equal social standings
  18. assimilations
    he process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
  19. segregation
    physical or social separation of categories of people-de jure: by law-de facto: in fact
  20. hyper-segregation
    having little contact with any kind if people outside the local community
  21. genocide
    systematic killing of one category of people by another deadly from of race and ethnocentricism
  22. race/ethnicity of the US: NATIVE AMERICANS
    -1871 forced assimiliation-1924 entitled US citizenship-Albion (1971) concluded law social standing result of cultural factors
  23. white anglo saxon protestants
    cultural legacy/ english dominant language/protestant dominant religionhistorical dominance is evidentwidespread use of race and ethnicity to describe everyone but them
  24. african americans
    American dilemma--democratic society's denial of basic rights and freedoms to entire group of people13 amendment=slaverydecline in prejudice but hierarchy still existsjim crow laws: institutionalized discrimination1950-60s nat'l civil rights move
  25. asian americans
    4.5% US population"model minority" stereotpemisleading bc it hides the differences in class standards and poverty among their ranks
  26. chineses americans
    immigration began in 1849 w/ gold rusheconomic hard times led to prejudice"yellow peril"--laws passed to bar from many occupationsracial hostility: moved east to urban chinatowns by 1950 many experience upward social mobility
  27. japanese americans
    fewer japanese in US, assimilated better, preferred rural farming so less visiblefaced crisis after Pearl HArbor, rage directed at japanese, stayed in military campsupward social mobility=social assimilationmany abandoned tradtions
  28. recent asian immigrants
    may have strong entreupenural spirit--a strategy for dealing w/ societal prejudice and discrimination
  29. hispanic americans/latinos
    now largest racial/ ethnic minorityhispanics are a cluster of distinct populationseach identify with a particular ancestral nation
  30. mexican americans
    today more immigrants come from mexicobelow average in economic and educational attachment
  31. puerto ricans
    adjusting to cultural patterns is a major challengemost speak only spanish which limits economic opportunitymost socially disadvantaged social minority
  32. cuban americans
    400000 cubans fled to america after 1959 revolution highly educated business and professional peoplemedian income above average of that of other hispanics
  33. arab americans
    US minority increasing in sizeincludes ancestry from about 22 nations more negative attitudes towards muslims than any other ethnic group
  34. white ethnic americans
    recognizes ethnic heritage and social disadvantage of many white peoplemany in traditional working class neighborhoodsthose who prospered gradually assimilatedethnic heritage is now a source of pride
  35. race and ethnicity: looking ahead
    US has been and will remain a land of immigrantsrising hostility towards foreigners todays immigrants try to blend into society with culture 0 35 Wrong Flip Right

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