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What is the composition and nutrient value of fish?
- -18% - 20% good quality protein
- -Fat in fish is unsaturated
- -Lower in fat and cholesterol thanmoderately fat beef
What kinds of unsaturated fat is found in fish?
- 1) Omega-3 polyunsaturated FA 30-45%
- 2) EPA 8-12%
What is the most popular seafood in the U.S? What are some of the other top 10?
- -Top 10: Tuna, Salmon, Alaska Pollack, Tilapia, Catfish, Crab, Cod, Clams, Scallops
What are the consumption trends for seafood/meat according to the USDA per capita Annual Disappearance Data?
- -16 lbs Fish and Shellfish
- -62 lbs Beef
- -60 lbs Chicken
- -47 lbs Pork
What is FinFish? What are some common types? What are they classified as?
- 1) Fish that have fins and internal skeletons
- 2) Most popular in US are tuna, cod, Alaska pollack, salmon, catfish, and flounder/sole
- 3) Classisified as fresh water or saltwater
- (saltwater fish are more commonly purchased and have a more distinct flavor)
FinFish are classified by fat content. What constitutes lean fish vs low-fat fish? What are some examples of each?
- 1)Lean fish (2.5 grams or less per serving)
- Examples: Cod, Halibut, Flounder, Pike, Red Snapper, Sole, Tuna, Ocean perch, Orange Roughy
- 2) Low-fat (2.5– 5 grams of fat)
- Examples: Bass, Catfish, Salmon (Chum and Pink), Smelt, Rainbow Trout, Swordfish
- 3) Moderate Fat (5 to10 grams)
- Eamples: Herring, Tuna (bluefin), Lake trout, Salmon (Atlantic, Coho, Sockeye), Whitefish
- 4) High Fat (more than 10 grams)
- Example: Mackeral, king Salmon, Sardines
Fish are high in Omega-3 FA. Which sources are the highest and what are some examples?
- 1) More than 1 gram per 3ounce serving:
- Examples: Herring,Mackerel, Salmon (Atlantic, Pink, and King), Tuna, Whitefish
- 2) Between .5 and 1 gram
- Examples: Bass, Bluefish, Salmon(Chum, Coho, Sockeye), Smelt, Swordfish, Rainbow Trout
What are crustaceans and what are some examples?
- Def: An invertebrate animal with a segmented body covered by a hard upper shell and a soft under shell
- E.g: Lobster, Shrimp, Crab, Crayfish
What are mollusks? What are the different kinds/examples of each?
Def: An invertebrate animal with a soft un-segmented body usually enclosed in a shell
- -Bivalve: Clam, Mussel, Oyster, Scallop
- -Univalve: Avalone, conch, Snail
- -Cephalopod: Octopus, Squid (Calalmari)
Oysters, Lobster, Crab, and Scallops are common Mollusks and Crustaceans. How are they purchased
- 1) Oysters: sold in shell, must be alive, shells tightly closed
- 2) Lobster: sold alive in seawater until cooked
- 3) Crab: Blue (Atlantic),Dungeness (Pacific), and Alaskan King Crab
- 4) Scallops: Bay smaller, Sea: larger 2 inches
What are the different names for shrimp? How are they sold?
- 1) Larger Shrimp-Prawns
- 2) Fresh ( also called green shrimp)
- 3) Sold by size
- -Medium 35 to 40 per pound U-20, U-30, U-40
What is Fish Roe? What do you cook it?
- -Eggs from finfish to cook: parboil for 2-5 minutes then dip in cornmeal and fry
- -Caviar: Sturgeon roe preserved in brine
What are some other fish products?
- 1) Minced fish products- fish sticks, seafood nuggets
- 2) Surimi- Made by a special process from mechanically deboned fish flesh. Used in a variety of fabricated seafood products
- 3) Cured fish
- 4) Canned fish
What should you look for when purchasing fresh fish and frozen fish?
- 1) Fresh: Bright clear eyes, surface free of dirt, slime, flesh firm to touch, no fishy odor
- 2) Frozen: Solid, moisture proof wrap, NO excess ice crystals
What are the gov. organizations that are part of the FDA inspection? How can fish be regulated? What is the optional org?
- 1) Inspection FDA: FDA mandatory oversight, Office
- of Seafood, National Shellfish Sanitation Program, HACCP systems required
- 2) Grading
- 3) Optional Protection: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
What are the market forms of fish?
- 1) Whole, drawn (entrails removed)
- 2) Dressed (whole, with scales, fins, removed)
- 3) Fillet (boneless sides of fish)
- 4) Steaks (cross section usually contains backbone)
- 5) Fish portions (cut from frozen fish blocks)
Market forms of fish pic.
What are the cooking principles of cooking fish?
- 1) Requires short cooking time and moderate temp.
- 2) 8-10 min. rule
- 3) Sufficiently cooked when falls into clumps
- 4) Flesh looses translucency (145 degrees)
- 5) Shells open, shrimp turns pink
What are the risks of raw fish?
- 1) Parasites
- 2) Ciguatera poisoning (Florida, the Caribbean, Hawaii)
- 3) Norwalk Virus (Shellfish)
- 4) Also, mercury and PCBs which accumulate in fat and larger fish.
According to the FDA, Whar are our most popular fruits?
What is the nutritive value of fruits?
- -75% to 95% water
- -Lower in Calories
- -Low in fat and protein ( exceptions are avocados, olive, coconuts)
- -Provide fiber
- -Vitamin A and C
- -Minerals, Potassium, and iron in some dried fruit
What are single fruits?
- 1) Citrus Fruits: oranges
- 2) Drupes: apricots, cherries, peaches, plums
- 3) Pomes: apples, pears
What are some Aggregate fruits?
What is an example of a multiple fruit?
What gives fruits their flavor?
- 1) Aromatic Compounds: Esters, aldehydes, alcohol
- 2) Acids: Organic compounds
- 3) Essential oils: Oil of lemon or orange
- 4) Other compounds: Sugar, mineral salts, phenolic cpds.
What are some ripening changes present in fruit?
- 1) Softening degradation of cementing substances (Protopectin is converted to pectin)
- 2) Decrease in green color and development of yellow-orange or red-blue colors
- 3) Development of pleasant flavors
- 4) Acid is reduced as fruit ripens