AP 1 (11-6)

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AP 1 (11-6)
2011-11-28 16:38:07

AP1 chapter 11.
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  1. What is a Chemical gradient?
    Concentration gradient for an ion across plasma membrane
  2. What is an electrical gradient?
    Attraction between opposite charges or repulsion between like charges
  3. What is Equilibrium potential?
    When electrical and chemical gradients are equal and opposite, resulting in no net movement across membrane
  4. Changes in membrane potential primarily occur due to _____ opening or closing in response to stimuli.
    gated channels
  5. What are the three different gated channels?
    • Chemicallygated channels
    • Voltage-gated channels
    • Mechanically gated channels
  6. Neuromuscular junction receptors that bind ACh, are and example of what type of gated channel?
  7. What type of gated channel is most abundant on dendrites and cell body of neurons?
  8. What type of gated channel is characteristic of excitable membranes?
  9. _____ open or close in response to changes in membrane potential.
    Voltage-gated channels
  10. What are the three types of voltage gated channels that are most important to neurons?
    • Voltage-gated
    • potassium channels
    • Voltage-gated
    • calcium channels
    • Voltage-gated
    • sodium channels
  11. What two gates function independently inside voltage-gated sodium channels?
    • Activation gates
    • Inactivation gates
  12. What type of gate open in response to physical distortion of membrane?
    Mechanically gated channels
  13. What type of gated channel is important in sensory receptors?
    Mechanically gated channels
  14. When the membrane potential becomes less negative, the membrane is _____.
  15. What is the approximate value of threshold of action potential?
  16. Prior to action potential generation, sodium channels are _____ but capable of _____.
    • closed
    • opening
  17. Prior to action potential generation, potassium channels are _____ but capable of _____.
    • closed
    • opening
  18. Prior to action potential generation, the _____ gate is closed but capable of opening.
  19. Prior to action potential generation, the _____ is open in the sodium channels.
    Inactivation gate
  20. What are the steps of action potential generation and propagation?
    • Depolarization to threshold
    • Activation of Na+ channels and rapid depolarization
    • Inactivation of Na+ channels and activation of K+ channels
    • Potassium channels close
  21. As membrane reaches resting potential (–70 mV)
    K+ ions continue to leave cell until all channels are closed which produces brief _____.