Criminology final 1
Card Set Information
Criminology final 1
criminology criminal justice
The theory of somatotypes was developed by_________
Crimes that are considered evil in themselves are called ______ _____ ___
mala en se
The way in which society enforces norms may be positive or negative. These are known as__________
What age group has the highest rate of violent victimization?
What percentage of parolees discharged from supervision return to prison due to recidivism?
The theory that swift, certain, and severe punishment acts as an effective deterrent to crime is called ___________ __________
According to sheriff Jow Arpaio, what is the main reason for illegal aliens coming to America?
to find work
Historically the oldest response to crime, that involves punishing a criminal proportionately to the crime is called_______________
The use of incarcerated persons to reach conclusions about the influence of biology on the general public is called ______ _________ ____________
The Lombrosian fallacy
Treatment that seeks to eliminate links between stimuli and troublesome behaviors is known as ____________
What kind of role does IQ play on delinquency and crime?
minor and indirect
According to best estimates, what percentage of the prison population is psychopathic?
The idea that crime is learned, and can be unlearned, is central to what psychological theory of crime?
Crimes that are forbidden by laws that attempt to regulate behavior are called?
Breaking a norm that has been codified into law is called________
In western culture, most deviance is committed by men aged?
What a society deems good, bad, beautiful, or ugly are called?
Slurping your drink in class would be an example of a violation of a__________
The number of prisoners as a percentage of the total population is about______
Repeat offending is called?
Approximately what percentage of violent crimes were committted by an armed offender?
As of 2009, the most dangerous city in the US is _________
In recent years, the number of African Americans in jail has___________
Rendering a person incapable of committing further crimes is called?
Results of the Kansas City Preventative Patrol study showed that.......
...the number of police patrols has no effect on crime rate
According to most research, Scared Straight programs.....
...actually increased delinquency between 1 and 30%
"Melanie's Bill" was legislation passed in Massachusetts to increase the penalties for?
Most research on the death penalty suggests that....
...it has no effects on rates of violent crime
Which neo-classical theory of crime focuses on which types of people are most likely to be victimized?
The first scientific study of crime was done by__________
The idea that biological processes may play a role in crime is known as________ ____________
Men commit ____ times the number of murders than women.
Lombroso's term for individuals who break the law of society, but whose physical stigmas and sense of moral degeneracy are less pronounced than the insane is_________
Which hormone is most responsible for aggression?
Rewards for doing something right to increase target behaviors are called?
In a study of 900 African American youths, what was the strongest predictor of delinquency?
What percentage of female cohorts typically become life- course persistent offenders?
A framework and theoretical construct that is used to describe and compare different forms of criminal behavior is known as?
Women are usually ________ _________ offenders rather than life-course persistent
An example of a cohort?
the graduating class of 2011
The gradual movement from incarceration to extreme supervision to gradual re-entry into society is called?
The earlier a person commits their first crime....
....the more likely they are to become life-course persistent offenders.
According to cohort research, what variable matters most in predicting the path of life-course persistent offenders?
Programs that try to prevent crime by dealing with the needs of the individual offender is known as?
The idea that the law and hte criminal justice system are merely a tool used by the ruling class to maintain power and control is called?
The idea the imprisonment served as an important role in capitalism by regulating the surplus labor market was first dicussed by?
Rusche and Kirchheimer
The first criminologist to feature a conflict perspective of crime was?
The idea that as a minority population increases relative to white populations, they will be viewed as a threat and punishment measures for crime will increase is known as?
the racial threat hypothesis
Generally, bias in the criminal justice system...
The belief that the law is the result of a battle between people or groups who have different levels of power in society is called?
the conflict model
What state has the highest disparity between white and non-white incarceration rates?
The opposite of anomie, this describes attachments that tie an individual to society.
This theory of crime argues that the criminal justice system actually produces crime.
This theory of crime states that when we brand a person as a criminal, they take on the behaviors associated with that role.
According to control theory, individual who are married would be less likely to commit a crime because....
....of their attachment
containment theory was developed by?
The idea of a "culture of crime" was first articulated by?
The idea that crime rates were the result of local variations in levels of poverty, alcoholism, and joblessness rather than a result of biological factors was first championed by?
Individual who seek to pass laws that prohibit particular behaviors are known as?
The idea that one's own self concept is the product of other people's conceptions or symbolic labels is known as Cooley's....
....looking glass self
According to the general theory of crime, what is the sole cause of all criminal behavior?
low self control