Criminology final 1

Card Set Information

Criminology final 1
2011-11-30 10:31:16
criminology criminal justice

criminology final
Show Answers:

  1. The theory of somatotypes was developed by_________
  2. Crimes that are considered evil in themselves are called ______ _____ ___
    mala en se
  3. The way in which society enforces norms may be positive or negative. These are known as__________
  4. What age group has the highest rate of violent victimization?
  5. What percentage of parolees discharged from supervision return to prison due to recidivism?
  6. The theory that swift, certain, and severe punishment acts as an effective deterrent to crime is called ___________ __________
    Deterrence theory
  7. According to sheriff Jow Arpaio, what is the main reason for illegal aliens coming to America?
    to find work
  8. Historically the oldest response to crime, that involves punishing a criminal proportionately to the crime is called_______________
  9. The use of incarcerated persons to reach conclusions about the influence of biology on the general public is called ______ _________ ____________
    The Lombrosian fallacy
  10. Treatment that seeks to eliminate links between stimuli and troublesome behaviors is known as ____________
    Aversion therapy
  11. What kind of role does IQ play on delinquency and crime?
    minor and indirect
  12. According to best estimates, what percentage of the prison population is psychopathic?
  13. The idea that crime is learned, and can be unlearned, is central to what psychological theory of crime?
  14. Crimes that are forbidden by laws that attempt to regulate behavior are called?
    mala prohibita
  15. Breaking a norm that has been codified into law is called________
  16. In western culture, most deviance is committed by men aged?
  17. What a society deems good, bad, beautiful, or ugly are called?
  18. Slurping your drink in class would be an example of a violation of a__________
  19. The number of prisoners as a percentage of the total population is about______
  20. Repeat offending is called?
  21. Approximately what percentage of violent crimes were committted by an armed offender?
  22. As of 2009, the most dangerous city in the US is _________
    Camden, NJ
  23. In recent years, the number of African Americans in jail has___________
  24. Rendering a person incapable of committing further crimes is called?
  25. Results of the Kansas City Preventative Patrol study showed that.......
    ...the number of police patrols has no effect on crime rate
  26. According to most research, Scared Straight programs.....
    ...actually increased delinquency between 1 and 30%
  27. "Melanie's Bill" was legislation passed in Massachusetts to increase the penalties for?
    drunk driving
  28. Most research on the death penalty suggests that.... has no effects on rates of violent crime
  29. Which neo-classical theory of crime focuses on which types of people are most likely to be victimized?
    lifestyle theory
  30. The first scientific study of crime was done by__________
  31. The idea that biological processes may play a role in crime is known as________ ____________
    behavioral genetics
  32. Men commit ____ times the number of murders than women.
  33. Lombroso's term for individuals who break the law of society, but whose physical stigmas and sense of moral degeneracy are less pronounced than the insane is_________
  34. Which hormone is most responsible for aggression?
  35. Rewards for doing something right to increase target behaviors are called?
    positive reinforcement
  36. In a study of 900 African American youths, what was the strongest predictor of delinquency?
    lead poisoning
  37. What percentage of female cohorts typically become life- course persistent offenders?
  38. A framework and theoretical construct that is used to describe and compare different forms of criminal behavior is known as?
  39. Women are usually ________ _________ offenders rather than life-course persistent
    one time
  40. An example of a cohort?
    the graduating class of 2011
  41. The gradual movement from incarceration to extreme supervision to gradual re-entry into society is called?
    phased re-entry
  42. The earlier a person commits their first crime....
    ....the more likely they are to become life-course persistent offenders.
  43. According to cohort research, what variable matters most in predicting the path of life-course persistent offenders?
    socio-economic status
  44. Programs that try to prevent crime by dealing with the needs of the individual offender is known as?
    case management
  45. The idea that the law and hte criminal justice system are merely a tool used by the ruling class to maintain power and control is called?
    instrumental Marxism
  46. The idea the imprisonment served as an important role in capitalism by regulating the surplus labor market was first dicussed by?
    Rusche and Kirchheimer
  47. The first criminologist to feature a conflict perspective of crime was?
    George Vold
  48. The idea that as a minority population increases relative to white populations, they will be viewed as a threat and punishment measures for crime will increase is known as?
    the racial threat hypothesis
  49. Generally, bias in the criminal justice system...
    ...benefits females
  50. The belief that the law is the result of a battle between people or groups who have different levels of power in society is called?
    the conflict model
  51. What state has the highest disparity between white and non-white incarceration rates?
  52. The opposite of anomie, this describes attachments that tie an individual to society.
    social bonds
  53. This theory of crime argues that the criminal justice system actually produces crime.
    lableing theory
  54. This theory of crime states that when we brand a person as a criminal, they take on the behaviors associated with that role.
    labeling theory
  55. According to control theory, individual who are married would be less likely to commit a crime because....
    ....of their attachment
  56. containment theory was developed by?
    Walter Reckless
  57. The idea of a "culture of crime" was first articulated by?
    Edwin Sutherland
  58. The idea that crime rates were the result of local variations in levels of poverty, alcoholism, and joblessness rather than a result of biological factors was first championed by?
    Gabriel Tarde
  59. Individual who seek to pass laws that prohibit particular behaviors are known as?
    moral entrepreneurs
  60. The idea that one's own self concept is the product of other people's conceptions or symbolic labels is known as Cooley's....
    ....looking glass self
  61. According to the general theory of crime, what is the sole cause of all criminal behavior?
    low self control