Med. Term Ch. 13

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Med. Term Ch. 13
2011-12-01 23:23:58
Endocrine System

Endocrine System
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  1. -crine
  2. -sipsia
  3. eu-
    good, normal
  4. exo-
    outside, outward
  5. antagonistic
    acting in opposition; mutually opposing
  6. electrolytes
    mineral salts (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carry an elextrical charge in solution
  7. glucagon
    hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen (a starch form of sugar) to glucose
  8. glucose
    simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
  9. homeostasis
    relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
  10. hormones
    chemical substances produced by specialized cells of the body that are released slowly in minute amounts directly into the bloodstream
  11. insulin
    hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that acts to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as carbohydrates (glycogen)
  12. sympathomimetic
    agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
  13. target
    structure, organ, or tissue to which something is directed
  14. adren/o
    adrenal glands
  15. calc/o
  16. crin/o
  17. gluc/o
    sugar, sweetness
  18. home/o
    same, alike
  19. kal/i
    potassium (an electrolyte)
  20. pancreat/o
  21. parathyroid/o
    parathyroid glands
  22. thym/o
    thymus gland
  23. thyr/o
    thyroid gland
  24. toxic/o
  25. acromegaly
    chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a gradual, marked enlargement and thickening of the bones of the face and jaw
  26. diuresis
    increased formation and secretion of urine
  27. glucagon
    hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells
  28. glucose
    simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
  29. glycosuria
    presence of glucose in the urine or abnormal amount of sugar in the urine
  30. graves disease
    multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)
  31. hirsutism
    excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
  32. hypercalcemia
    excessive amount of calcium in the blood
  33. hyperkalemia
    excessive amount of potassium in the blood
  34. hypervolemia
    abnormal increase in the volume of circulating fluid (plasma) in the body
  35. hyponatremia
    abnormal condition of low sodium in the blood
  36. insulinoma
    tumor of the islets of langerhans of the pancreas
  37. obesity
    -morbid obesity
    • excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the bodys skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
    • -body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
  38. panhypopituitarism
    total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity
  39. pheochromocytoma
    small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla
  40. thyroid storm
    crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic
  41. virile
    masuline or having characteristics of a man
  42. virilism
    masculinization in a woman or development of male secondary sex characteristics in the woman
  43. exophthalmometry
    test that measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos) as seen in Graves disease
  44. fasting blood glucose
    test that measures blood glucose levels after a 12 hour fast
  45. glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    test that measures the bodys ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a standard dose of glucose and measuring glucose levels in the blood and urine at regular intervals
  46. insulin tolerance test
    test that determines insulin levels in serum (blood) by administering insulin and measuring blood glucose levels in blood at regular intervals
  47. protein-bound iodine (PBI)
    test that measures the concentration of thyroxine in a blood sample
  48. thyroid function test (TFT)
    test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
  49. total calcium
    test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
  50. computed tomography (CT)
    imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
  51. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
  52. radioactive iodine uptake
    administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) orally or intravenously (IV) as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood
  53. thyroid scan
    after injection of a radioactive substance, a scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland
  54. microneurosurgery of the pituitary gland
    microdissection of a tumor using a binocular surgical microscope for magnification
  55. parathyroidectomy
    excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism
  56. pinealectomy
    removal of the pineal body
  57. thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  58. thyroidectomy
    • excision of the thyroid gland
    • -method of choice for removing a fibrous, nodular thyroid
    • -removal of most of the thyroid to relieve hyperthyroidism
  59. antidiuretics
    reduce or control excretion of urine
  60. antithyroids
    treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone
  61. corticosteriods
    replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency (addison disease)
  62. growth hormone replacements
    increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults
  63. insulins
    lower blood glucose by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen (a starch-storage form of glucose)
  64. oral antidiabetics
    treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
  65. thyroid supplements
    replace or supplement thryoid hormones